Words Beginning with “А” from Selected 19th Century Russian Dictionaries

The reader will find here part of an etymological dictionary of pre-20 Century Russian. Its defects are defined by the immediate interests of the present editor-author, who continually has had to modify the design of this work. Although for the moment this is a mere one per cent of a full dictionary, it is placed here to evaluate its acceptance. 

 

Composite Title Page

It is based on the works of Christian Ph. Reiff,  N. P. Makaroff; Jacob Banks; and Ivan Pavlovsky – the first two in French, then English and German, respectively.  The latter three were added as found, which accounts for the ordering of these books being neither alphabetical nor chronological. Reiff was to be the model, and when Reiff did not give an etymology for a group of related words, an effort was made to find one, the completeness of which is based on personal criteria.

A curious fact about the present work is that it was made entirely without a Russian keyboard, whether real or virtual.

By recompiling these older dictionaries, we hope to be able to serve those who study historical works, wherein the neither the vocabulary nor the spelling matches what we see today.  The English is not further defined if the item was in the American Heritage Dictionary, nor was a reconciliation always made between its etymology, and Reiff’s. Words of interest not found there were subject to a sometimes difficult Internet search.

Table of Contents

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А абрик авран аграф aдан адок азям акл акуст алег алл алоц альк амат аміа анак анги анон анто апол апро арео арме арти архим аря ассо атле ауск to end of letter “А”

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Advantages

  • Russian spelling, as found in the 18th and 19th Centuries.
  • Orthographic development can be discerned between the older and newer pairs of dictionaries cited.
  • Elucidation of some obscure German words.
  • Better odds at finding the required words than in the on-line scanned versions,
  • Improved definitions of obscure ones, using vocabulary found at least in larger English dictionaries, and where not, supplemented by information available on the Internet.
  • So as not to leave the researcher wondering about their existence, recognition of obsolete and archaic words, as well as misspellings by the authors of the works cited. If in French or German, these may have been left untranslated, either to serve as additional information – unnecessary to the main objective of this document, or because multiple meanings make it unclear to what degree these latter should be included.
  • References to sources of the 18th and 19th Centuries give context to definitions.
  • Choice in definitions, by not having limited the translation to one or two sources.
  • More definitions than in a pocket dictionary. The word count vastly exceeds the German Langenscheidt Taschenwörterbuch Russisch, and the Pocket Oxford Russian Dictionary.  The latter has 225 headwords for “A”, (not really a valid method of counting), including modern entries, abbreviations, and proper nouns.  Of all definitions, there are about 429.  To compare with the present work, we ignore proper nouns and modern definitions (some of which require, without further research, subjectivity), giving a reduction of about 93 terms, leaving 346.  This may be compared to the present 1140 entries, excluding expressions (which were counted in the preceding case.)
  • Notes of various types, including contradictory etymologies, hypotheses on word origins, vocabulary which may not be deemed acceptable in a world demanding political correctness, and observations on words which entered the Russian vocabulary on the threshold of the publication of the dictionaries consulted.
  • Page numbers for PDF-format dictionaries, to facilitate verification, e.g. for peer review. At times, the real page number may differ from the number required for the actual search, so the page number needed for the PDF browser is also shown, (occasionally, in square brackets). (This is missing in entries near the top; and it may not be valid for all .pdf viewers, in which case the user will have to adapt the information to the situation at hand.)
  • Differences of opinion about accentuation given – underlined accented vowels are less intrusive.

An illustration of why someone may prefer not to look at the original dictionaries. See Entry 000186 Азъ, below

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A Note on the Formatting of this Document

Some years back, it was discovered that it was not a good idea to have an excess of symbols, abbreviations, and meaningless words (from the point of view of a page supposedly written in a single language, and as interpreted by this writer).  There is no way of getting around these limitations in writing a dictionary, but what may seem to be inconsistencies to the reader (in referencing the dictionaries used) may perhaps help get around the problem.  A certain dearth of symbols may also help. The final choice may not work with older computers, but complies with the author’s Window’s XP Pro, with Chrome Version 39.0.2171.71 m.

Originally, this was written with a number of footnotes.  In a document of this length, these would have been unwieldy, so all references have been placed together with the item under translation.  Ideally, some of the material should be written in smaller text, but this is apparently a punishable action by the companies which would index this page, so the quality of the presentation has been sacrificed in the hope of getting this page visible in the shortest possible period of time.

The text was written without putting capital letters on the words defined, thus conforming with modern Russian usage.  A few exceptions have been made where it seems the writer’s discretion may be permitted.

Browser results for the italicized version of ѣ are unsatisfactory. There should be no Arabic and Hebrew words in reverse, but sometimes some automatic reformatting seems to take place, which does not match the text which was uploaded. Improvements will be made when the author is aware of their necessity.
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Limitations of the Original Documents

The originals may be perused on line, or downloaded, but they have two major defects: the Russian alphabet used is more complex than the current one, and the optical character recognition leaves a lot to be desired, as can be surmised from the name of the online file to Reiff’s first volume, (later, a different copy had the more reasonable label, Dictionnaire_éthymologique_de_la_langue.pdf):

RRussko_frantsuzskìĭ_slovar_ili_E̊tim.pdf

Here is the literal copy of the French title as seen through optical character recognition:

DICTIONNAIRE . ‘RUSSE-FRANÇAIS, DANS LEQUEL LES MOTS RUSSES SONT CLASSÉS PAR FAMILLES.

This has only one or two errors, depending on how they are counted, but in the second instance, we obtain:

DICTIONNAIRE RUSSE-FRANÇAIS, DANS LEQUEL LES MOTS RUSSES SONT CLASSÉS PAR FAMILLES; OU DIÏIOEÈÏI‘JI®NNAHRE ÉTYM®L©COEÏI@UOE. DE“ LANGUE RUSSE,

 

For Russian, the results are even worse.  First, a relatively minor misreading: for СЛОВАРЬ, we have found CJIOBAPL.  This writer’s eyesight, on a computer rendering the text in Times New Roman, tricked him into thinking that the “Л” was correctly copied, but it is in fact a “J” plus “I”, thus: “JI” The letters seemed to be Cyrillic, but they were not.

Should the reader be looking for whatever this word represented, it would be better to find a hard-copy:

A_uеrорrіuесrсііі.

Excepting changes in meanings of words,  the German text also has two defects for the modern reader: it is written in fraktur, a type-face little-known nowadays, and the spelling has been officially modified twice since then.

Furthermore, the Reiff and Makaroff texts abound in characters made illegible through an excess of inking, and sometimes, our sources do not show the complete word.

Even some of the entries in English have such unusual spellings, that it has been decided to include them, lest anyone be curious about these lexical oddities.

It is recommended that words not found through “search” be looked for using  the index provided, or  with the slider of the web page.

It is to be remembered that spelling conventions at the time of the writing of the cited works were not what they are now.  A final hard sign is no longer used, while the letter “i” has been replaced in modern times by “и”.  Where a successful search can be made, it should be done on the basis of the modern spelling, but inconsistencies between the dictionaries, may cause the same herein.  Here, modified Gr.  “theta”, Θ, is found under  Ф. [See the following.]
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A Note on the Alphabetical Order

While there is a certain logic in Reiff´s classification of words under what are unclearly marked headwords, the reader, especially in the case of optical-character recognition errors – not to mention those of the present author – it has been felt convenient to apply the criteria of strict alphabetical order.  However, in the case of obsolete letters, і may inconsistently take precedemce over its modern equivalent, which it should follow; ѣ may take the same action with respect to Е, (from Item 000740 on, the correct order is respected – the italic version should look like љ, but no way has been found to have the required letter from just looking like the purely italicized version of ѣ). Furthermore, note usage of Ѳ for ф; Ѵ in the last position; and letters which represented Greek equivalents – Ѯ, Ѱ – are under their modern transcriptions. If these letters have not been shown correctly on the reader’s computer, it would be necessary to install Arial Unicode MS, if the machine is capable of reading Unicode at all. No other option has been found to work.

Church Slavonic vocabulary has not been modernized, it would have been oxymoronic to do so.

The reader’s indulgence is requested in the case of any inconsistencies and errors – if this work is in any way an improvement over the originals, a small contribution has been made to researchers, and writers who would like to include a by-gone flavour to their creations. As even the source documents have errors, these latter, of course, may have been unwittingly passed on.
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Criteria for, and Method of Inclusion

Excepting illegible items and most proper nouns and their associated adjectives, all items in the four sources are included, with translations of the French and German given according to the present author’s confidence that the current meanings concur with those of the 19th Century.  In case of doubt, the French or German is left untranslated.  When such amphibolous entries are encountered, they are indicated by various types of editing.  This compiler’s own contributions – excepting his translations – are given in brace brackets.

It is to be noted that Pavlovsky ignored those adverbs which have meanings which are direct adverbial clones of the adjective, i.e., the meaning of “rapidly” is readily understood from the definition of “rapid”, but the synonymous adverb “fast” has multiple meanings,  Since German adverbs are visually the same as the adjective, the problem becomes more pronounced.

As the work slowly progressed, it was decided to separate the sources of the definitions of used by a double vertical line, giving Reiff in the 1st instance, Makaroff in the 2nd, Banks in the 3rd, and Pavlovsky in the final part.  This simplified the task of showing whether a particular source had defined the word. A modified system was employed later on – the reason being to improve the standing of this work in search engines, which punish an excess of repetitive symbols.  Missing entries are indicated by “—“.

When the field of usage, such as music or botany should be apparent, such information, as a rule, is not noted.

An effort was made to show the vowelling of Arabic and Hebrew; as well as to transcribe the original Greek correctly, but this may not always have been possible. Such vowelling is only to be expected when found in Reiff.

In order to preserve the original numbering, some duplicate errors which could not be replaced with a common word in the correct alphabetical order were replaced with entries from the dictionary abbreviated ТС.

It has been observed that there may be some additional problems with numbering once Reiff gives etymology for words on this page in his subsequent pages.  Nevertheless, it is expected that in the majority of the cases presented, the word will already be here, and the only thing that will need to be done is to give Reiff credit for its inclusion.
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A Note on Internet Sources

As excessive linking is punished, most of the time the Internet sources used are written in a form to prevent undesirable actions against the author.  It should be possible, however, to copy the name of any web page into Google Chrome, which would supply, automatically, missing http and www data. This may work poorly, or not at all, on other browsers.

A Note on the Etymology

Compiling this dictionary was taking much longer than expected, and the objective of a perhaps excessive thoroughness had to be sacrificed.  For this reason, the etymologies avoid discussion of Greek and Latin prefixes; and common suffixes such as –logy and –sophy are omitted, as most readers would be familiar with them already. The same is true for some common words.  Reiff’s derivatives are expanded when this researcher felt a special curiosity with regard to the roots.  In that event, when at least two sources did not agree on the etymology given, it is hoped that the contempory source used, is quoted within the context of “fair usage”, for the reader has the right to know about the differences of opinion arising among the various authorities, and should not have been lulled into thinking that whatever author was at hand, was transmitting established facts.  As one learns in a course on logic, the appeal to authority is a fallacy.  For this reason, what the etymologists have to say are necessarily opinions, often qualified by their own use of words such as “possibly”, “probably”, and “origin unknown”.  Greek etymologies not found in Reiff were checked in Liddell and Scott’s Dictionary; Arabic, primarily in the author’s Langenscheidt, Larousse, and Herder’s dictionaries.  An occasional glimpse may have been made into a Turkish or Persian dictionary written in Arabic script.

Furthermore, when Reiff’s etymological explanation did not seem correct or adequate, or when it was missing, steps were taken to find one.  The depth to which this was taken may vary. Words that go beyond Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, or Latin in their non-Indo-European roots, were only written in Latinized form; otherwise, a correct rendering of those 4 languages was of interest to this writer.  Use of the character map of the foreign alphabets was cumbersome, but gave this writer a new skill.

Many Slavonic words were found in Pavlovsky’s Dictionary – after some doubt, it was decided that these words should be included in the present compilation, because the Russian universities of the time emphasized religious teachings over the West’s Enlightenment-influenced curriculum  (Changes in Educational Ideology and Format: 18th to 20th Century Practices, <http:**sites.bu.edu/revolutionaryrussia/student-research/griffin-monahan/>  Acc. 20170224).  This language would thus be used in writings, in the same way that Latin was often found in English writing, especially in footnotes – a practice which may be fading, yet remains in our spoken ergos, ad libs,  et cetera.  On the other hand, Pavlovsky included some expressions which were so literal in translation, that their inclusion would have added needlessly to the length of this compilation.

NOTICE

NOTICE: THE PRESENT AUTHOR HAS COMPILED THE FOLLOWING WITHIN CERTAIN LIMITATIONS, MOST OF WHICH HAVE BEEN EXPRESSED ABOVE.  NO GUARANTEES ARE OFFERED THAT EVERY WORD HAS BEEN COPIED, OR IF COPIED, THAT IT HAS BEEN READABLE, READ, OR COPIED CORRECTLY; NEITHER IS THERE ANY GUARANTEE THAT THE TRANSLATIONS, IF CORRECT, ARE VALID AT PRESENT;  OR CORRECT AT ALL.  NO GUARANTEES ARE GIVEN THAT THE ETYMOLOGIES CONCUR WITH THE LATEST RESEARCH; THEY PRIMARILY SERVE THE PURPOSES OF THE PRESENT AUTHOR AT THE MOMENT THAT RELEVANT NOTES WERE MADE; AND, IN FACT, MAY BE SUPPOSITIONS BASED ON A COMBINATION OF HIS OWN RESEARCH AND INSTINCTS.  IT IS SUGGESTED THAT USERS FOLLOW BEST RESEARCH PRACTICES.

Paul Karl Moeller, February 5, 2017.

 

Abbreviations  and Symbols Used

Full data for the sources listed below can be found in the Bibliography. When an item is indicated as not being in Reiff, it means that it was not under the first letter of the alphabet, but it may have been included under the root word elsewhere.  Such a check would have been too time-consuming.  Items between parallel columns: ||  ||  || : items are ordered: R || нпм || B || P.  Choice of abbreviations and signs are based on esthetic considerations.

∀: all 4 dictionaries used as sources for this work.

⊂fr: both Fr. dictionaries

⊂G: Banks’ and Pavlovsky’s dictionaries

≠: excluding, e.g. ≠R, excluding (no entry in) Reiff; ≠B (Banks); ≠M (Makaroff), ≠P: excluding Pavlovsky.

br: excluding Banks and Reiff.

bm: excluding Banks and Makaroff

mp: excluding Pavlovsky and Makaroff, a mnemonic for, Not “Modern”, pre-1860 Publications.

pr: excluding Pavlovsky and Reiff  (preceding group replaces separator:  ||  ||  ||  || )

= : in front of any of the preceding instead of ≠, means only the named author(s). Replaces “x” as described below.

@ > see next article

+@: more [in the place indicated, e.g., +@ supra: more in the preceding article

½ as in ½P: word is included in an expression given by dictionary compiler P

acc. constr.: depending upon (grammatical) construction

ADN: Nostratic Dictionary, Aharon Dolgopolsky

ADW: An American Dictionary of the English Language, Noah Webster,

AHD: American Heritage Dictionary

ALX: A Complete English-Russian Dictionary, A. Alexandrov.

Ar. Arabic

Archt: architecture

B: Dictionary of the English and Russian Languages, J. Banks, Vol. I. A-O. [to replace JBD]

ТСЖ: Толковый Словарь Живаго Великорускаго Языка, В. И. Дал, Vol. I, А – З, [Moscow: А. Семён, 1863]

Brc: Der Sprach Brockhaus

Comm: Commerce

D7: Duden’s Herkunftswörterbuch

DAF: Dictionnaire Arabe-Français, Daniel Reig

DIL: Diccionario Ilustrado Latino-Español, 3a edición, Prólogo: Vicente García de Diego.

DPE: A Dictionary of Persian and English, 2nd Ed., Ramdhun Sen.

DRL: Dictionnaire des racines des langues européenes, R. Grandsaignes d’Hauterive

DRV: A Dictionary of Russian Verbs, Daum, Schenk.

DTF: Dictionnaire Turc-Français, Tome I, 2nd Edition, T.X. Bianchi & J.D. Kieffer

EDP: An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English, and other Indo-European Languages

En. English

Etym.: Etymology

f.: feminine Noun

FCH: Diccionario Arabe – Español,  F. Corriente. 3a Ed

FC2: Nuevo Diccionario Español – Arabe, F. Corriente.

fig. figurative

Fr. French

GDS: Griechisch-Deutsches Schulwörterbuch, Gustav Eduard Benseler, 5te Auflage

GEL: Greek-English Lexicon, Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, 8th ed.

GEO: A Compleat System of General Geography: Explaining the Nature and Properties of the Earth 

Gk. Greek

Gr. German

GZP: Roots of the Russian Language, George Z. Patrick.

HDS: Handwörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, Weber

HSD: Harrap’s Shorter French and English Dictionary

ind. poss. Adj.: individual possessive adjective

incl.: indeclinable

I.- O.: Indo-European

Isl.: Icelandic

IvP: Russisch – Deutsch Wörterbuch, Iwan Pawlowsky

JDB: Dictionary of the English and Russian Languages, J. Bank’s, Vol. I. A-O.

LDA: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbuch: Arabisch, Georg Krotkoff.

LDR: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbuch Russisch.

LEL: A Latin-English and English Latin Dictionary for the Use of Schools, Charles Anthon

LHE: Langenscheidt Pocket Hebrew Dictionary; Hebrew English, Karl Feyerabend

LSD: A New Latin Dictionary, E.A. Andrews, ed., Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short

m.: Masculine Noun

M: instead of нпм, when confusion with m. should not be possible.

MAF: Dictionnaire moderne française – anglais anglais – français, Larousse

Min. Minerology

Mod.: Modern

ms3: Muret-Sanders encyklopädisches Wörterbuch der Englischen und Deutschen Sprache, Teil II, Deutsch – English

n.: Neuter Noun

нпм:  N. P. Makaroff, Dictionnaire Russe – Français Complet. St. Petersburg, 1867

NPM:  N. P. Makaroff, Dictionnaire Russe – Français Complet. St. Petersburg, 1874

NPm:  N. P. Makaroff, Dictionnaire Français – Russe Complet. St. Petersburg, 1887

n-pr.: negative prefix

obs.: obsolete

o.- i. – Old Indic

OxF: The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Current English, H. W. Fowler & F. G. Fowler

OxR: The Pocket Oxford Russian Dictionary

p.: participle, preterite (defntn. in JBD)

P: instead of IvP, when confusion with p. should not be possible.

pass. part.: Passive Participle

PkP. Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary: A Revised Edition of Julius Pokorny’s Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch

POK: Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Julius Pokorny, I. Band.

Pop. Popular or vulgar word

PSI: Diccionario Griego – Español, Pabón S. de Urbina, et. al.

R: Russe-Française ou Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Russe, Tome I,  Christian Ph. Reiff [to replace RED]

RAE: Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Real Academia Española, 21a Edición.

RED: Russe-Française ou Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Russe, Tome I,  Christian Ph. Reiff].

SIL: Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, Rick Derkson

СИО Словарь руского языка, С. И. Ожегов.

Sl. Slavonic

Tech.: Technical

Tk.: Turkish

ТС: Толковый Словарь, 40000 Иностранныхъ Словъ

W9: Webster’s 9th New Collegiate Dictionary

WDC: Dictionary of Spoken Russian: English – Russian, Russian – English, (War Department Technical Manual 30-944).

WIR: William L. Roy, A Complete Hebrew and English Critical and Pronouncing Dictionary,  2nd Ed., [New York: John F. Trow & Co., 1846].

WW: A Dictionary of the English Language, William G. Webster & William Wheeler, [New York: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 1867] (Merriam), 1895

x: preceding name of author: excludes same (pre ≠ usage). After name, only that author. (momentarily, inconsistent, will be replaced)

<< word found only through

< this word derived or translated from

> giving the derivation or translation

*, **, ***: same as asterisked word given previously in the definition

 

An Updated Etymological Dictionary of 19th Century Russian

Letter А

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А: A. Greek. –, letter alpha.

А: —–, —-, [No etymology given for this conjunction meaning “but”. Suspected simplification of the o.-i. aparám, “in contrast”; shortened to aber (but) in Gr. (Wo?). D7 gives aber as a comparative, related to ab (off, away), hence to the root apo-. {A similar process may be postulated for the Russian by the following: [1], similar to the preceding case, apocope of everything after the “a”; [2] There is a case, where AHD and DRL put shared roots for Sanskrit ava: off, down, under au-3 and au II respectively. The former includes Old Russian u, meaning “away”.]

аангичъ, m.,∀: species of duck found in Kamchatka: anas hiemalis, P: савка.

“Polar Duck” in Индоевропейский словарь с ностратическ этимологиями, Volume 1 Арон Долгопольский, Litres, 12 ene. 2017. {Russian e-publisher}. books.google.com/books?id=KmqPCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA400&lpg=PA400&dq=anas+hiemalis . Further information: a species of Pochard, considered rare, but perhaps oft confused with the Common White-eyed Duck. Found im Kamchatka in 1825, but apparently not seen there since (as of the source written about 1896). Almost nothing to report about its summer status. It appears to have been found in Kamchatka in 1825 by Kittlitz; John Charles Phillips, A Natural History of the Ducks: Plectropterinae, Dendrocygninae, Anatinae (in part) (1 v.), [New York, Dover, 1986, reprint of a 1922 book], p. 211; books.google.com/books?id=8mP16bsYCJEC&pg=PA211, acc. 20170528.

{Transcription of the reconstructed root, because of special characters, is not possible (later found at #809, in ADN, p. 775), but it inolves Pokorny’s I.-O. root anət-. It may be presumed that there is a relationship between Аангичъ, Lat. anas, anatis, and Sp. ánade, all meaning “duck”. More obvious is Lat. anser (goose), where the “s” substitutes the guttural “k” of the centum languages, here expressed with the Cyrillic “Г”. The entries seen refer mainly to fowl: ducks, geese, partridges, and ptarmigans. The I. – O. root root for Gr. “duck”, Ente, D7, confirmed by AHD, is anət– (duck). Neither D7 nor Wo? connect anas to anser, Wiktionary does, but gives no reasons. Goose’s root, in AHD, is ghans-, which claims that anser is a derivative. If the “gh” can be dropped, as it was in this case, the rest of the Anseriformes – the Anatidae – find their etymological accomodation. Cf. Old Norse words ending in “r”, but not the case in the other Germanic languages: bakkr, Gr. Bach, British beck (small brook); the word for tree, bađmr, Gr. Baum, En. related word “beam”; and the related words “dwarf”, Gr. Zwerg, and Old Norse dvergr, as English “boat”, Gr. Boot, Old Norse bátr. (Words selected from Wo?, or more to the point, to show how ar- words are derived from as-, to burn, glow, e.g. arson, arid, ara (altar), i.e. how anas (“s” ending) becomes anser.

а, f., ≠R:. ‘aba; عباءة “coarse white sheet (or cloth) with which the Orientals make their cloaks for proteccion against the rain.”; Ar.

aбажуръ, m., нпм: lamp-shade (ALX). Fr.: abat-jour, ТСЖ, p. 1, [72]: “slanted wall for a window …”, i.e., skylight.

азъ, m., нпм: Persian coin, 20 kopecks. {abas (нпм), singular form of aбасы.}

ака, f.,∀: abacus. Gr.: αβαξ, same root, Gr.: der Abakus. Fr.: abaque. Sp.: ábaco. AH gives the root as Hebrew ābhāq, ,אָבק ,.

——-:: Four interjections before the following word are omitted, 2, self-evident, the other 2 placed in correct alphabetical order, not included in word count.

абасы, m. pl., ≠mp: R: Persian coin worth 25 kopecks or centimes, (ADW: 20 cents); B: abassi; ADW: abassi[s]; Persian, Not included in word count. [The transcription seems to be the same as the Ar. for “Abasside”.]

аббатисса, f., нпм: Abbess; Fr. Abbesse, Sp.: abadesa; Aramaic, abba: father, אָב.

аббатскіи, нпм: abbatial; Aramaic, abba: father.

000010 аббатство, n., нпм: abbey; abbacy, monastery; Aramaic, abba: father.

аббать, m.,∀: abbot from Hebrew, ab: father [Aramaic: RAE, abba, father]

абдикація, нпм: abdication [Latin, ab + dicere from i.-e. deik– (AHD, DRL, to show {sometimes “to show by saying”, so the German absagen for “abdicate” parallels the Latin forms}

абевега, m., ≠mp: ABC (A, B, C), first elements of an art or science.

aбвелъмосха, f., P: hibiscus grains.

aбелъмосхъ, aбелъмошусъ, aбелъмошъ, m., P: hibiscus, abelmoschus, item not included in word count.

абецадю, n, R: 1st 4 notes of the musical scale; Polish, abecadło.

абeppація: aberration (in optics or astronomy). [Latin ab + errare. AHD and DRL agree on a root “ers-“, but have diverging views on whether this is Indo-European or Germanic. We believe DRL to be wrong, and that it should have put its ers- under its er-, thus the two sources would agree that the root is about “being in motion”]

абіе, Sl, B: soon, immediately.

абинный, adj., ≠mp: made of the cloth known as aba, used by the Arabs; of coarse cloth used for cloaks (defntn. by Banks) [P: see: Аба]

аблегатъ, m., ≠pr: ablegate, Fr. Ablégat, Sp.: ablegado {Latin, ab + legare: AHD and DRL agree on a root leg-, but the latter divides it into 2 different roots, specifying Latin or Latin with Greek (Agreement exists on a second variation). Broadly speaking, we agree that the original meaning has to do with collecting, making possible the connection of the divergent claims for lex and logos. The former comes to be a “collection of laws” while the latter can end up in a “treasury of words [thesaurus]. German makes a distinction of such a collection with a plural Wörter, while the words strung together meaningfully are Worter.}

000020 абонементъ, m., нпм: subscription; Fr. from Low Latin: bonna: limit. D7 gives limit through Old French, while Wo? and RAE suggest Fr. bon < Latin: bonus < : deu– in AHD, dwenos-, Latin of obscure origin in DRL. {No reason is seen for any connection to the latter. The Old French words bosne, bodne suggest borderstone or goal. We can reduce this to modern Fr. borne for the same O. Fr. words, the English translations suggest the word “post” , which is the prefixed form of sta– (AHD: to stand, DRL limits this to “stand upright”. A derivative which could then be related to the Old French is Spanish obstáculo: obstacle – in effect a “limit”. AHD and DRL agree on the root of the Sp. word, which, in its meaning as “limit”, as in the Low Latin etymology originally given under this definition. Bon can be compared to a Br. type of pronunciation of borne, cf. the “r” infix in Old Norwegian discussed under “Polar Duck”, above.}

абонентъ, m.,∀: subscriber. For the etymology, see 000020

абониментъ, m., ≠R: subscription. Не въ счётъ абонимента : subscription suspended.

абонированіе и абонировка, m., ≠br: The action of subscribing. {prepayment: (IvP)} see 000020

абонировать,∀: subscribe, + P: prepay, accented абонировать; see 000020.

абонироваться, P: to take out a subscription.

абордажный, adj.,∀: Boarding (sense of meaning and root given below).

0000025 абордажъ, m.,∀: boarding {act of war} – the moment in which two enemy ships make use of the grappling hooks. From Fr., aborder {Sources disagree, bher– or bherd-, place where one boards, or “to cut”. D7 suggest Germanic roots only, Wo? agrees, but suggests a related Old Slavic word, brazda, meaning furrow: *borzdà” furrow in EDS. More productive in the same source is *urt-: A cognate outside Balto-Slavic is Lat. versus m. ‘furrow, row, line’}. The former Slavic word, is traceable to Latin wer-, which gives us Russian verst, from a Baltic-Slavic root meaning the same as the Indo-European one, found in verse, divert, transverse. From the latter word, there is the suggestion of the oblong beam used transversally. Also notable is how the ideas of line, row, or furrow may be represented as [floor]boards or a verse:

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The connection between Lith. Varstas and borzdà is not made in EDS, nor does it postulate an I.-E. root for the latter, but applying common transformations, it does not seem impossible to see a nexus:

varstas

borzdà

of the form

Врзт-(з/c)

Here we have used the Russian equivalent of “V” for its appearance as “B”, vowels are dashes, we use the Russian equivalent for “r”, and the “z” which is pronounced “s” in front of “T”, which happens to be the pronunciation of a final “d”.

абордажный, adj.,∀: boarding. {nautical meaning, etymology in previous entry.}

абордировать: to board {nautical meaning, etymology 2nd entry above.}

аборигены, m. pl., adj., ≠br: aboriginal, aborigine; {Latin: AHD, Aborigenes, a Latium-dwelling pre-Roman tribe; only ab + origene through folk etymology}.

абрикосовый –косный, adj., ∀; P, (2nd word): apricot; P: of apricot(s), {e.g. cf. apricot tree vs. apricot liqueur.}

000030 абрикосъ, m.,∀: apricot. Gr. Abrikose

{Incorrect: Wo? gives Gr. Aprikose to Dutch abrikoos and other words originating in the same Latin root as for precocious, literally meaning pre-cooked, but extended to early-ripened, Latin from Greek, and to Arabic al + barquuq: برقوق, colloquial for apricot, and related to Latin apricus, sunny. D7 adds that the Moors brought the word to Spain, where it is albaricoque, RAE agrees with the Arabic origin, not mentioning other details.

абрисъ, m.,∀: plan, design, sketch, outline, contour. Gr. {of a figure – IvP} Abriss. Tech., archt. {from Riß, from a word meaning “furrow”, “line”, Anglo-Saxon: writ (writing), (Wo?): compare Абордажъ’s borzdà and varsta to the here-derived В-рзт-(з/c), if V>B or W, ST>T (Grimm’s Law). This agrees with D7. “Write” < wer-(5) in DRL, a root meaning to scratch or tear. AHD simply states that the root is Germanic, writan. By elimination of the suffix, this suggest the line and furrow meanings of *urt-, 000025, q.v.}

абсиды: f. pl., ≠M: loci, Greek άψιδες. {Meaning: to tie. Geometry term: translated from French absides, now translated as “apse”, pl. apsides, similar meaning in English, in astronomy.}

000033 абсолютизмъ, m., нпм: absolutism {≠R, a dictionary dedicated to the Tsar probably did best to avoid such a term, (Lat.: ab+solvere)}

абсолютно, нпм: absolutely.

абсолютный, adj., ≠pr: absolute.

абуза, f., B: @ обуза: burden, burthen, load, weight, difficulty.

абцисса, f., ≠P: abcissa; Latin: abscissa, from scindere, to cut. {< caedere, < AHD: I.-E. skhai-, cut, strike; skei in DRL, which adds meanings such as split}.

абшидъ: m., ≠P: leave, abdication, dismissal (? –renvoi), mil., Gr. Abschied. {discharge, resignation. нпм only, which gives “certificate of leave”, the original Fr. in both dictionaries being congé. obs., cf.: ru.wikisource.org/wiki/ЭСБЕ/Абшид, or ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/абшид.

абшитъ, m., ≠mp: ditto. Item not included in word count.

авaнгаpдный, adj., ≠R: B: van (for vanguard); in the van (for in the vanguard); P: передовой, leading, front.

авaнгаpдъ: m. mil., ≠R: avant-garde.

000040 авaнзaлa, f., ≠br: antechamber.

авaнпостъ, m. mil ., ≠R: outpost.

авaнсценa, f., ≠R: forestage; proscenium; Gk: σκήνη: tent.

авaнтaжно, ≠mp : advantageously.

авaнтaжъ, ≠P: advantage, Fr. from avant {from Latin abante (from before), from I.-O. root anti-}

000045 авaнтaжный, –ая, ое, adj., ≠P: advantageous; useful, profitable, + нпм: joli; For root, see below.

авантуринъ, m.,∀: aventurine; P: Goldflimmerglas; It.: avventurina {AHD: Fr. aventure, because of its chance discovery}.

авантуринный, –aя, ое, adj.,∀: aventurine, – see above.

авантюристъ, m., P: adventurer, not the first meaning that comes to mind!. Item not included in word count.

аварійный, –ая, ое, adj., ≠mp: average (in the Maritime sense of the defntn.); etym. below

аварія: 1. average: (term in Marine Law relating to damage or loss); Italian: avaria {Old Fr. from Old It. From Arabic ‘awārīyah, damaged goods, from root ‘awar, mod. Ar. combining these meanings with: ,عوار, (not the same in Corriente, ‘awārīyah is not in the modern sources consulted.} 2. + P: harbour anchorage dues, ship expenses.

Авва, m., ≠P, нпм: Sl.: Father, + R: Title given to priors and superiors in convents. Syrian av: אָב .

000051 авгуръ, m.,∀: augur, Roman priest who predicted the future through the song or flight of birds. Latin: augur. {aug– increase}

авгурскій, ≠mp: augural. (supra).

авгуратство, n. R: “dignity of an augur” {To coin a word: “His Augurness”, based on “highness”; better: “The Worshipful Augur” 000051.}

августинецъ, –нца, m., R: Augustine monk, Austin friar.

августъ, m.,∀: August (month) Augustus (name). Latin: augustus {Aug– > 000051}.

августскій –ая, ое: adj. August. Supra.

августѣйшій,∀: most august (title given to princes and sovereigns) > 000051.

авдотька, f. ∀: Sandpiper, godwit (R: Fr.: barge), thick-knee, stone curlew, Norfolk Plover; scolopax totanus, P: Sandschnepfe, (snipe), oedicnemus crepitans); авдотьа for евдокіа, completely separate entry in B, trans. as Eudocia, and it explains nothing. Godwit, of unknown origin (AHD), has some coincidental elements with авдотька, taking ав as авва, in its meaning of God, and a remote CvC similiarity between дот and “wit”. Allowing for any vowel to equal any other vowel, we get a 50 % correspondence. Perhaps we have a certain time of reduplication, ав as in avis, and дот as in Gr. Dotter, yolk. By coincidence, дот is a Russian acronym meaning “machine-gun nest”, thus keeping the idea of “bird”. AHD gives Lat. avis and “egg” under avi-, DRL, in our opinion, avoids connecting aw- of bird to its ow- of egg, while EDP cites Pokorny for aw-, awi-, awei, and ow-, owo, aywo-, owyo. [p. 43]. PkP, under au̯ei- (ǝu̯ei-?) (*hekʷei-), separate from ō(u̯)i̯-om, “Ei”, d. h. “das zum Vogel gehörige”, the former on pp. 219-220; the latter: pp. 2272-3, [search: same page no.] A non-sophisticated proof that AHD is correct is to note that the Gr. for “egg”, minus its capitalization, ei, is part of the roots awei, ǝu̯ei-? and *hekʷei-.

авось or авосьлибо,∀, авось–либо (in нпм, P): maybe, possibly, perhaps, it is to be hoped.

000060 авраамово дерево, m., P: see агнецъ (непорочный) 000096, q.v.

авралный, –ая, ое, adj. ,∀, in: –ная работа, ⊂fr: work which requires all baggage on the bridge (see next).

авралъ, ≠P: all hands ahoy. [En.: over all]..

авранъ: m. Centaury (centaurea, centaurium), дикій авранъ (gratiola officinalis); gratiole, common hedge hyssop or herb of grace. Gr. Aurin { IvP}; ТС: Fr. {The Ав- beginning would be “Au”, the “ранъ” corresponds to the “rin” of the Gr. Aurin} See: Handbuch der Pharmacie zum Gebrauche bei Vorlesungen & zum Selbstunterrichte für Ärzte, Apotheker & Droguisten, Band 2, Ausgabe 1, Winter, 1829 [Heidelberg: Philipp Lorenz Geiger, 1828]; books.google.de/books?id=XR5gAAAAcAAJ, p. 366, acc: 20170219. “Aurin: (der ~) des -es, plur. inusit. ein aus dem Lat. Aurina entlehnter Nahme, der von einigen besonders zweyen Pflanzen wegen ihrer medicinischen Kräfte gegeben wird. 1) Dem Tausendgüldenkraute, Gentiana Centaurium, L. und 2) dem Gnadenkraute, Gratiola offic. L. welches besonders wilder Aurin genan[–]…”, text found from a no-longer functioning site, but with URL enzyklo.de/lokal/40138&page=37. Acc: 20170219.

аврикула, f., Bot., ≠R: Auricula, oreille d’ours {primula auricula < P} (Lat.: ТС)

000065 аврипигментъ, m., min., ≠R: gelber Arsenik, Opperment, (Operment in Brc, Orpiment; AHD, with formula As2S3, AHD+W9: arsenic trisulfide, OxF: trisulphide of arsenic; Auripigment, Rauchgelb under Operment in HDS), Lat.: ТС, Auripigment; auri– (gold) + pigment.

аврора, f., ≠P: aurora, beginning of the day. Lat: Aurea hora {I.-E.: awes / ais. To shine, in DRL, aus-, meaning: aurora.}

австерія, f., ≠pr: hostelry, inn, tavern. {Fr., from “hostel”(?) < hospital}.

австральный, –ая, ое, ∀: austral, meridional, / southern.

австръ, m., ≠P: “auster”, mid-day wind. Lat. auster: south wind.

000070 автобіографія, m, ≠br: autobiography.

автографія, f, ≠br: autography.

автографъ, m., ≠br: autograph; P: one’s own writing; copy-machine.

автократическій, ≠R: autocratic > 000033.

автократія, f., ≠R: autocracy > 000033.

автоматическій, ∀: automatic.

автоматъ, m. ∀: : automaton. Greek: αιτόμβτος < αυτός + μάειν : self + to desire {men-: to think, better overall concept in DRL: I.-E. root indicating “movements” of the spirit. If taken literally, R’s definition, “a machine which contains in itself the principle of its movement” would be a thinking robot, for all other automats have an external source as their prime mover.}

автономія, f., нпм: autonomy { αυτός + nomos: law < nem– assign, “distribute”}.

авторитетъ, ∀: authority; defntn. incl. testimony (of trustworthy people or documents – IvP); Lat.: auctor

авторскій, ∀:аdj. of supra.

000080 авторство, n., ≠br: authorship, literary career {the profession of a writer}

авторствовать, нпм: to exercise the profession of an author.

авторъ, ∀: author, writer, founder, inventor. Latin autor {auctor}

ага, m.,∀: (1) ≠P: aga, chief, commandant. Turkish: ağa,اغا , lord; (2) ≠R: ah, aha, oh.

агава, f., ≠br: agave. {AHD, RAE: Gk.: ἀγαυός, ἀγαυή: noble / admirable. This would seem to be the most logical root for “Augustus”.}

агама, f., нпм: agama. [Carib (AHD)]

агарь, m, ∀: type of small marsh woodcock, scolopax, (trans. as snipe in Banks, IvP).

A search for images of the names of the birds named, show similarities among them. The Gr. Sandschneppe (cf. Авдотька) was named scolopax totanus by Linnaeus in 1758, the primary source is the dictionary of the Grimm Bros., Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm. 16 Bde. in 32 Teilbänden. Leipzig 1854-1961. Quellenverzeichnis, Leipzig 1971. Online-Version vom 20.02.2017, at URL woerterbuchnetz.de/cgi-bin/WBNetz/genFOplus.tcl?sigle=DWB&lemid=GS01835, under URL woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB/?sigle=DWB&mode=Gliederung&hitlist=&textpattern=&lemmapa ttern=Gosse&patternlist=L:Gosse&lemid=GS01835. < Source: Lorenz Oken, Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände, Siebenten Bandes erste Abtheilung, oder Thierreich, vierten Bandes erste Abtheilung: Vögel, [Vol. 7, p. 496], [Stuttgart: Hoffmann, 1837], acc.: 20170324 at the following URL: {[//archive.org/stream/allgemeinenatur02okengoog#page/n523/mode/2up/search/defecta]]. The En. is common redshank, and the current Lat. name is Tringa totanus, based on view given in Google Search result, “J.D. Goss-Custard” Show more > //dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(77)90063-X > sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000334727790063X ”

агатъ, m, ∀: agate, Gk. ἀχάτης

агатовый, –ая, ое, ∀ и –тный, adj., ≠P: agate; Gk. ἀχάτης

аггелъ, m., ≠R: devil; P: Sl.: Satan, {Gk., ¿(bad) angel? (corroborated through ТС, p. 18, [30], fallen angel, (павшій аннгелъ), evil spirit)}. Gk., “messenger”. агг pronunciation presumed to be анг.

000090 агентскій, –ая, ое, adj., ≠P: agency, agent’s, agents’.

агентство, n.,∀: agency {erroneously m. in P}

000092 агентъ, ∀: agent; chargé d’affaires; middleman; Latin: agens, < agere: to do

агіасма, f.,∀: water blessed for Baptism (on the Feast of the Epiphany) / Holy Water, Baptismal Water; Gk. ἁγίασμα < ἅγιος, holy.

агнаціа f.,ТС: a relative one degree removed on the maternal side. Lat.

Агнецъ, m.,∀: lamb; Host: Consecrated Bread; {dim. in нпм (valid for sheep), its own dim. is агнчикъ}; агнецъ Божій: Lamb of God; агнецъ непорочный: a bush, agnus-castus, vitex agnus castus; chaste-tree, Abraham’s balm. Gk: ἀμνος, Lat: agnus: lamb.{According to AHD, the name of the shrub, literally translated from agnus castus, is New Latin influenced by folk etymology, confusing “lamb” with “holy, chaste”. Branches of the shrub, ἄγνός were used in certain rites [PSI]}.

000096 Агнечный, adj.,∀: Host’s = of the Host, of Consecrated Bread; P: Агнечная просѲора: Consecrated Bread (at religious service).

Агница, f., Sl.: Lambkin; the Virgin [Mary (P)]; R; a young girl gentle as a lamb, (Fr.: agnès); supra, нпм: “lamb” in fig. meaning; R, B: “lamb”.

агновъ –ва во, adj, ∀, in агновы вѣтви; {вѣтви: twigs}: branches of the Palestine willow.

агносцировать, com, ТС: {authentication of signature; (incl. cases of debt (its approval, according to an automatic translation by Google)]. Lat.: cognoscere, recognize; better: agnosco, a synonym of cognosco.

Агнчикъ, m., dim.,≠M, Sl., (<P): lambkin

000100 Агнчій –чья чье, adj., R: lamb’s, lambs’, modernized form, next entry, implicit declension for B.

Агнчій, –ая, ее, adj. Sl., implicitly in нпм P: from the lamb, lamb– {P, see previous entry}.

агня: n. Sl., ≠M: lamb.

агняти, n. Sl., ≠bm: lamb (under R, this is ambiguous).

агонія, f., нпм: agony.

агонографія, ТС: Gk. {description of a fight such as boxing, wrestling, or dueling, hence, includes: battle report: Kampfspielbeschreibung cf. Kampfspielbeschreiber, (which would be, e.g., a sportswriter for fights, the definition would not exclude, for this Gr term, war correspondent) (pg28real), books.google.com/books?id=JCs1AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA28 Allgemeines Fremdwörter-Handbuch für Teutsche, oder Erklärung aller fremdartigen Ausdrücke der teutschen Conversations-Sprache .. J. F. Heigelin, 2. Auflage., G. F. Osiander, Tübingen, 1838, Acc. 20170612

аграманты, –въ, m. pl., ≠bm: ornaments, embellishments on clothes and curtains. {Fr.: agréments}.

аграфъ, m., ≠mr: clasp, locket, {Gr. Agraffe, (17 C.,D7) or Fr. agraphe, (agrafe), from Old German krāpfo, hook (Wo?), {The suspicion that this word should be related to grip, grasp, and grab, Gr. Griff, greifen, is not substantiated; the 1st two of these have two different I-O roots, ghreb– and ghreib-, under which other derivations are found.}

агрегатъ, m., ТСЖ: anything which is externally whole, but composite, mixed, a collection or set, etc. Lat. cf. aggregate. Lat.: grex, gregis. Item not included in word count.

агрестъ, агрусъ, m., ТСЖ: gooseberry, Кibes Grossulariа.

агрикультура, f., нпм: agriculture.

000110 агрономическій, –ая, ое, ∀: agronomic, agronomical.

агрономія, f.,∀: agronomy; Gk. ἀγρός + νόμος < AHD field + law.

{A secondary meaning of νόμος is, by coincidence, field. How do we know that we do not refer to fields of study, the field of fields (agriculture), the field of stars? One of the very definitions of “field” is subject of academic interest. German translations of the words agronomy and astronomy are literally knowledge (or science) of agriculture, of stars. The word science comes from a Latin word meaning “to know”. There exist pairs of words, astronomy / astrology, and agronomy /agrology. W9 has the word astronomy predating astrology by a century, which is not what one would expect for the more serious science,, but, following their definition of –nomy to “nimble”, we see that it gives the etymology of the latter as both of the meanings of νόμος., giving “pasture” for field. Ultimately, even the AHD gives the same I.-O. root for both words: nem-, which agrees with DLR This argument is made because lex and –logy would seem closer to “law”, in spite of the pretensions of astrologers to know more than astronomers. Twelve signs of the Zodiac, with an interpretation for each one, each day of the year, gives 4380 “laws” per year, something with which no astronomer could compete!}

агрономъ, m., ∀: agronomist; agronomer; + P: farmer with scientific knowledge.

агу, агунюшки, нпм: Interjection addressed to babies to make them smile.

агути, m. incl., ≠pr: agouti; Guarani: agutí

адажіо, адажио, m., incl. Mus., ≠M: adagio; Lat: ad + jacere

адамантовій, –ая, ое, adj., ∀: of diamond, diamond, + R, P (Sl.): steadfast, impenetrable, etc., < алмазный, fig. < P.

адамантскій, sl., P: See previous entry, or алмазній / [2]: firm, firm as a rock.

адамантъ, m.,∀: Diamond; person unaffected by reverses, B: adamant; Алмазъ. Gk. δάμας, {hard metal}, n-pr., + δάμας, from δαμάειν, to tame.

адамашка, f., ≠P: (fabric), silk fabric. It. {< Lat. < Gk. < Ar. (from Damascus, Syria)}

000120 адамашковый –ая, ое, adj., ≠P: of damask, damask, of silk fabric.

амова голова, f., ≠R: la tête de mort (death’s-head); || mandrake, {plant known poetically as mandragora, мандрагоръ (atropa mandagora) || –мово яблоко: n. anat.: кадыкъ Adam’s apple; (as literally translated from the Hebrew {contested}, but as it stands, Adam, אָדָםֽ, man, this from אָדֵםֽ, or a variant of this, אָדֹֽם, meaning red, supposedly the red clay from which Adam was made: яблок is from the I.-O. root abel- (DRL, AHD) meaning apple. [2{ P: яблоко (райское): (citrus decumanum): Paradise apple)} /P: амова смоква = банатъ (?, unclear text, смоква is fig, банатъ is a region for railroad administration, banana is бананъ, see TC, p. 105, search 117.)}

All concepts expressed eventually lead back to “paradise”, viz. рай, “paradise [apple], and through the translation from Russian on dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dic_fwords/1941/АДАМОВА, we get the banana-type plantain, i.e. Musa paradisiaca, but the words citrus, apple, and fig suggest more evidence is needed. Wikipedia, under apple, gives malus malus pumila as a synonym of malus paradisiaca. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a banana was seen in the article on web-site:

pishchevarenie.ru/pancreas/dieta/banany-i-podzheludochnaya-zheleza.html, acc.: 20170219.

Another Wikipedia article advises that this should not be confused with grapefruit. This is true, based on the following text: “La plupart des botanistes ont confondu la pomme d’Adam avec le pompolmoes ou pampelmous, et les ont réunis tous les deux sous le nom de citrus decumanum.” [p. 140]. …Son écorce extérieure est lisse comme dans l’orange, … dans la maturité d’un jaune très pâle: elle es mince et marquée en quelques endroits par de légères gerçure comme si elle eût été mordue; circonstance qui lui a fait donner le nom de pomme d’Adam… [p. 142, Giorgio Gallesio, Traité du Citrus, Paris: Fantin, 1829, books.google.com/books?id=D1b5X0uk31QC] (Citrus decumanum was originally known as shaddock, cf. AHD, which correctly gives the alternate name pampelmous, not pomelo, although under this latter term, gives grapefruit, such as in this writer’s Spanish vocabulary. Appleton’s New Cuyas [English-Spanish, etc.] Dictionary translated both “grapefruit” and “pomelo” (Wikipedia’s word) into Spanish as “toronja” and is thus imprecise.

.

aдансоніа, f., P: baobab; Lat.: adansonia digitata < (Named for a Fr. naturalist: ТС.)

адатъ, ТС: analysis of questionable affairs among Trans-Caucasians. [p.22, search 34].

адвизный, –ая, ое, adj., comm., P: адвизное письмо: letter of notification < адвизное.

aдвизъ, m. comm., ≠R : advice, advice note.

адвокатскій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: law, law’s, advocate’s, advocates’ {latter 2 are dated}.

адвокатство, n.,∀: law (the profession), pleading, pettifogging, advocacy, advocateship; {R: for –ing forms.}

адвокатствовать, ∀: to exercise the profession of a lawyer.

адвокатъ, m.,∀: lawyer, advocate: the one who defends in a legal case. Lat. advocatus, ad + vocare: to call.

000130 аденологическій, ≠pr: adenological; Gk. ἀδήν, ἀδένος: gland + logos {Gk. adän: “gut” in AHD, root being I.-O. engw-: groin, internal organ}.

аденологія, f.,∀: adenology

аденотомія, ≠pr: adenotomy, dissection of the glands.

адептъ, m., ≠pr: adept / alchemist < (нпм) {Latin ad + I.-O. ap– , reach, same root as in “apt”}

адипосиръ, P: adipocir; (адипоцера in ТС, various meanings, p. 24 [36]), adipose, from Lat, only in P, which says, see мыложиръ, (p. 323, 343 search): Gr.: Fettwachs, Leichenfett, Adipocir. {Reverse translation in ALX gives “soap fat”. OxF: Greyish fatty substance generated in dead bodies subjected to moisture. [f. Fr. adipocire (L. adeps, –ipis: fat, + -o- + cire wax: L. cera)]}

административный, –ая, ое, adj.,∀: administrative

администраціонный > исполнятельный, adj., P: vollziehend, completing, fulfilling, ТСЖ gives different context: relating to administration, especially in matters of secondary importance.

администраскій, –ая, ое, adj., ≠P: administerial, administrator’s.

администраторство, n., B: administratorship.

администраторъ, m.,∀: administrator, manager, director.

администрація, f.,∀: administration; Lat. administratio < ad + ministrare, to serve

000140 адмираловъ, ind. poss. adj., B: admiral’s, the admiral’s

адмиралтейскій, адмиралтейский, –ая ое, adj., ≠br: admiralty’s; {the ≠mp spelling is адмиральтейскій}

адмиралтейство, n., ≠br: admiralty; {the ≠mp spelling is адмиральтейство}

адмиралтейство, n. admiralty, navy administration / navy dockyard / navy office {нпм variant spelling of адмиральтейство}

адмиралтействъ – совѣтъ, m., ≠br: admiralty’s council / staff, more correctly, Admiralty Council, (an 1827 creation replacing the Admiralty College Board, encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Admiralty+Council, its info taken from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979), acc. 20170510).

адмиралъ, m.,∀: [1] admiral, commander of a fleet; Ar.: emir al bahr: اميرالبحر commander of the sea. (The following notes apply to the Fr. text): 2nd class. Генералъ – Адмиралъ: grand-admiral (1st class); Вице – Адмиралъ: vice-admiral (3rd class); Контръ – Адмиралъ: Rear-admiral (4th class); [2] аталанта, Gr. Atalante, Admiralsfalter : Admiral Butterfly [3] Fr.: cornet (coquille univalve), conus admiralis, Gr. Admiralschnecke.

Admiralschnecke: Image at gastropods.com/1/Shell_571.shtml . On this web-site we located an image of Leptoconus ammiralis ammiralis, a.k.a. the Oberadmiral, the connus ammiralis summus in older German texts (e.g. Wolfgang Walther, Unterhaltungen für Conchylienfreunde, [Erlangen: Joh. Sam. Schröter, 1789], p. 33, books.google.com/books?id=1aI5AAAAcAAJ, accessed 20170316.) Acc.: 20170304.

адмиральскій, –ая, ое, adj.,∀: of an admiral /an admiral’s, admirals’

кораблъ, P: admiral’s ship, perhaps from Gk, karabos, κάρᾶβος, light boat, [light ship in GEL, p. 744, III, and still related then, and verified in mod. Gk, to καραβι, ship), the root for caravel, related to the Gr. Korb, a basket, probably from Lat. corbis. Wo? relates this to the corvette, which AHD defines as a light warship, a term leading back to the idea contained in the Gk. term just mentioned. D7 professes ignorance on “corvette”, but connects it with “corf”, coming from Dutch, and then again connected with Korb through the common meaning of basket, a container, a vessel. Strangely, none of this author’s sources connect Lat. corbis to corbita, a type of ship < DIL, LEL specifically gives a 2nd definition of “corvette” for corbita; LSD does not.

адмиральскій часъ, m., нпм: Expression literally meaning “the hour of the admiral” a term used by some Russians while taking a glass of brandy towards noon.

адмиральство, n.,∀: admiralship.

адмиральтейскій, –ая, ое, common poss. adj., ≠mp: admiralty’s;

адмиральтейская коллегія, B: the admiralty.

000150 адмиральтейство: see Адмиралтейство.

адмиральша, f., ≠R: admiral’s wife

адовъ, –ва, во: adj., ≠pr: hellish, infernal. Perhaps I-O root dheu-, AHD gives an interesting set of words here, the most apt being *dhwes-, suffixed *th(w)es-os-, smoke, theion, θήι̃ον sulfur, brimstone (item 13) known symbols of hell. Other derivatives with the idea of smoke are found under the same entry. One of these, dove, seemingly so named because of its smoky colour, closely matches in appearance, if not in meaning, the Russian word. The same I-O root can contain the idea of vapour. In Hebr., a translation of mist or vapour is אֵד, suffixed form אֵדֽוֹ. The next entry in LHE is the verb meaning, to cause to languish, to grieve: ādăv, אָדַֽב, which gives a close fit again, if only by coincidence, hell, the place where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth: Luke 13.28, Matthew 13.42. Further thought leads to the Sp. adobe, which has two separate meanings, and the same number of Arab roots. The form of the word we know in Engl. is Ar. aṭ-ṭub, الطُب, and suggests the kiln in which these bricks are fired, a “hell”. While searching for this, the author found an Egyptian word, aṭ-ṭaabeeya, الطابية, meaning dungeon., another form of hell. The other form in RAE, aḍ-ḍabba, (bolt, latch), meaning irons put on the feet of a criminal, related LAD entry, ḍab, ضب, lock up, a root including meanings to keep quiet, be fastened (to the ground), with derivatives meaning fog and vapor, thus there are shared meanings with the I-O. root. Cf. Turkish عذاب, ‘azaab, pain, punishment, agony; torments of hell.

адозданный –ая, ое, adj., Sl. P: created in Hell {in der Hölle erschaffen [sic] – The etymology would be the same as in the previous, + a derived form of дать. The translation seems dubious, perhaps it should be “created Hell”, using the German perfect verb tense, hat der Hölle erschaffen, allowing even for “had —[somebody or something]— created in Hell”, hat … in der Hölle erschaffen. It would be necessary to see the full text to know the correct sense of this expression.}.

адокса, f., P: @ мушкітница {@ мушкатница (adoxa moschatellina, Gr.: Bisamkräutchen, 1st component Gk.,= lacking glory, 2nd component, Italian, from Late Latin, a word meaning “musk”, because of the smell of this flower.)}

Адонай, m., нпм: Adonai, Hebrew name of God. (Gk., from Phoenician, adōn, lord, {capitalization expected})

адонисъ, m., P: (adonis) {a flower}, ад— осенній (ad— autumnales); ад— весенній @ стародубуа; праздникъ въ честь адонисъ: Gr.:festival in honour of Adonis. A grave misreading as Adoniszeit merits its inclusion, as the person here described may well have participated in such festivities: “Wer kann von sich sagen: Sic transit gloria mundi? Ein etwas antiker Hagestolz, dem in seiner Adoniszeit kein Mädchen schön und brav genug war, und ein belletristischer Scandalist, dessen Schwanke un Ränke nach zehn Jahren nicht mehr interessieren.”: The quote is from a volume edited by Strauß, 1846, Der Wanderer, books.google.com/books?id=9BlMAAAAcAAJ, p. 1206.

Adonis

Adonis (flower)

адоническій, adj., нпм: Adonic verse = P: адоническій стихъ

адресный, –ая, ое, adj., ∀ but B writes адрессный: address, of address (below, q.v.): нпм: Адресный столъ: bureau d’adresses; адресный – билетъ, bureau for permission to stay, or B: bureau of addresses for foreigners, or: register-office {alien resident registry office}.

адресованіе, n., P; адрессованіе, n., B: addressing, applying, directing; — столъ: Gr.: Addresstisch {perhaps a secretary desk, or the place in an office for addresses/addressing, but more likely R: адресъ–контора (not included below), civil registry office, if not the same as адресъ–столъ, see: адресный}. dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dic_fwords/2156/АДРЕС, accessed 20170305.

000160 адресовать,∀; B: адрессовать: v. address, dispatch; къ кому. S’adresser à {multiple possible translations, common to our main sources: to appeal to (have recourse to): J. Banks gives: to address one`s self, to make application, to apply}; pass. part., нпм: адресованный, addressed, directed .

адресъ, m.,∀; B: адрессъ: address, direction; P: a formal written communication to a person in high authority; petition; B: адресъ–календарь, ∀: directory, R: calendar; almanac of addresses (of functionaries – нпм). {translations suggest the idea of lists,and see адресованіе]

адски, ≠pr: hellishly, infernally

адскій, adj.,∀: hell’s, hellish, infernal, intolerable, painful; ски, infernally; — камень: pierre infernal, nitrate d’argent fondu, pierre factice qui a la propriété de brûler, de consumer les chairs sur lesquelles on l’applique. (< Wiktionaire (obs.)); lapis infernalis: Fused silver nitrate; lunar caustic.. — ская работа: travail diabolique; — Etym. at Адъ.

адъ, m.,∀: hell, Hades, inferno; R: any intolerable stay (sojourn); Gk.: Hades: ἅδης, {ἅιδης}, a probable root in AHD, weid-, to see, with the Greek hell “probably” meaning something like “the invisible”.

адъюнктскій, adj.,∀: adjunct’s, adjuncts’

адъюнктъ, m.,∀: adjunct, colleague, assistant; deputy, substitute; Lat. adjunctus, < ad + jungere (to join):

адъютантскій, –ая, ое, adj., ≠M: adjutant’s, adjutants’, aide-de-camp’s, etc.

адъютантъ, m.,∀:adjutant, aide-de-camp; —скій, adj., полковой —,нпм: adjutant – major‡, R: флигель – адъютантъ: Emperor’s adjutant [{Gr. Flügeladjutant, = wing + adjutant}], (Lat. adjutans < adjutare: to help.

‡ While no such contempory word was found, and automatic translation results did not agree, the Russian was found at po-finski.net. The translation was regimental adjutant, which, further research showed, could at times, if rarely, be a person with the rank of major .

ажіо, ∀, лажъ (syn. in нпм) m., incl.: agio; It. Aggio {exchange} {Gk. ἄλλαγή, (AHD): change, from allos other, < al-, I.-O. Beyond. The Gk. λλ, if the etym.is valid, might be compared to the Rioplatense “ll” pronounced similar to ж, i.e. a sound of “g” in “rouge”}.

ажіотажъ, n., ≠br: agiotage.

000170 ажіотёръ, m., ≠mp: Practitioner of agiotage / stock-jobber.

азартничать,∀: to hazard, to risk / + R: to act in a moment of anger.

азартный, –ая, ое, adj.,∀: risky, rash, hazardous / hot-tempered, irritable; ная игра, ≠B: game of chance; ный человѣк, R: daredevil, etc.

азартъ, m., ∀.: hazard, chance, risk; / fury, irritability (нпм’s only idea, but both R and нпм converge in modern meanings; the following expression justifies the idea of anger}: вь азартѣ либо сдѣлать: to act in a moment of anger; It., R: azzardo; OxF: probable Ar. origin; AHD: Ar.: yasara (he played at dice { يسډر} {Not a meaning which finds contemporary prominence, varied pronunciations of this basic form translate as “to be easy” and give the idea of “left” (as opposed to “right”). According to FCH, which mentions no dice, there was a pre-Islamic game of chance called maysir, so more correctly, “he played maysir”, with an extended meaning, in a different form, “he played a game of chance”. The same root is found in the name of Yasser Arafat. Its opposite is (following the above model from AHD) yamana, “he came from the right”, with more propitious meanings for gamblers, such as blessed, be a good sign, luck, happiness. The country Yemen is of this root, with an additional name in Spanish, Arabia Feliz, the prior Latin name being Arabia Felix, used in the title of an 1859 book by Sir Robert Lambert Playfair, A History of Arabia Felix Or Yemen, from the Commencement of the Christian Era to the Present Time: Including an Account of the British Settlement of Aden, books.google.com/books?id=i0oOAAAAQAAJ. Acc.: 20170511.

азбестъ, m., ≠P: asbestos; [азбестъ in нпм.] Gk. ἄβεστος: not extinguishable. P gives a modified spelling, using “ess” instead of “zeh”.

азбестъный, adj., M: asbestos (not included in word count)

азбестъовый, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: of asbestos, etc.

азбука, f., dim. ∀.; азбучка, f. ∀: spelling book, speller, primer / B: hornbook / нотная — : musical scale / Это для него китайская азбука, нпм: That’s Greek to him, i.e. unintelligible. {Gr. Das sind ihm böhmische Dörfer / kommt ihm spanisch vor}; The first two letters of the Slavonic alphabet, the first being Азъ, the second, буки).

азбучникъ, m. ∀: abecedarian, a novice.

азбучница, f., R: see next (This item not in word count).

азбучный, adj.: alphabetical / abecedary, alphabetic.

азимутъ m.∀: azimuth; Ar.: اسمت : way, direction.

азимутный –ая, ое, ∀: azimuthal.

000180 азимутъ–комрасъ, m., P: azimuthal compass.

азимуѳъ; m., R: @ азимутъ.

азотистый, –ая, ое, adj., P: azotous, nitrous.

азотный –ая, ое, adj., ≠br: azotic.

азотовый –ая, ое adj., (⊂G): azotic.

азотъ, m.,∀: nitrogen; –тный: azotic, nitric; Gk., α + ζωή: not + life.

000186 азъ,∀: [1] Sl. Pron.: I; me {Etymology with ties to Sanskrit “aham” अहं and German, ich, more logically with Latin and Gk. ego, ἐγό. [Note, from the Gk., the visual similiarity to Sp. yo, changing the “o” sound to “a”, then “y” + “a” ≈ Rus. Я, then It. io. By elimination of the non-English “o” ending, we get “I”. See illustration. [2] Slavonic name of the letter А. [нпм only]: Онъ аза въ глаза не знаетъ: He doesn’t know A from B (or: chalk from cheese.) / {He doesn’t know a hawk from a handsaw; not know beans / not know how many beans make five / not know anything (and similar expressions.with emphasis on contrasting items, here we can give an almost literal, rhyming, “not know “I” from “eye[s]”. Mod. En. has some more colourful expressions.)}; сидѣть на азахь: still be at a rudimentary level.

I-Ego-Mei-Mihi

Interconnectivity of Various Indo-European Words Representing the First Person Singular

‡ By false anology from the 1st part of the unvowelled name of God, יהוה, i.e. יה, the same pronunciation (to English ears) can be mistakenly read for what was, in unvowelled Hebrew text, a form of an ancient verb, “to be, to exist”, rendered in some Bibles as “I am who I am”, Exodus 3: 14, or, שמות, יד, ג, cf. William L. Roy, A Complete Hebrew and English Critical and Pronouncing Dictionary, 2nd Ed., New York: John F. Trow & Co., 1846, p. 285 (pdf, p. 282).

азямецъ / азямчикъ, ⊂F: dim.: See азямъ..

азямъ, m.,∀: summer caftan or tunic; (attire of the masses: нпм). R: Summer wear of the Tartars which has the same cut as the Russian; caftan; P: type of Russian summer caftan. Tatar word.

ай, i., ≠R: Oh!, whew! нпм: Ай какъ больно! {“Aie! Que cela me fait mal.”: Oh! How that hurt me!} Ай да молодецъ, {Ah! ça! est-il brave ce garçon-là! [sic] Why! What a brave fellow that is there!}

000190 ай, m., ≠br: sloth, ai {AHD: Port. from Tupi, ai}; тихоходъ

айва, f.,∀: quince; also ≠br: квитъ; Tk.: aïva; آيوا, quince tree (pyrus cydonia) {DTF, 290 [326]}.

аймакъ, m., нпм: estate / enclosure, canton, borde [sic, misprint for border, or possibly “horde”] < (D); cf. ТСЖ , 6(77), with meaning [among the Russians] a collection of administrative regions, probably an equivalent to a collection of counties in the Anglo-Saxon countries; the meaning of horde may come from Dal’s definition of the word as used among the Mongolians and affiliated races, precisely a word broadly referring to their ethnic group. A third meaning, this among the Kalmucks, is that of the hereditary estate of a noble, or the owners of that property.

айръ, m. ≠R: нпм [айръ]: acore, иръ; P: сабельикъ (татарскій): calumus, sweet flag, acorus calamus; B [аиръ]: иръ: f., (acorus calamus) sweet rush [his further translations ignored for their incompatability with the two already given]. Cf. Gr. Ähre, En. ear, roots of which are ak-: sharp. Acorus has the same root, while the second component of the Latin name means, reed, from Gk: κάλαμος, I.- O. koləm- related to English “haulm”.

аистникъ, m., нпм, P: geranium, pelargonium {Gk: πελαργός.: stork < AHD. нпм only.}

аистовый, –ая, ое, adj , ≠P: stork, stork’s, storks’

аистъ, m.∀, but mp аистъ, br аистъ: stork; black stork [latter in R]; (ciconia alba), the common stork, i.e. a white stork [as defined in B]; ciconia, Storch, i.e. stork [P]; {no etym. given. I.- O.: aw– [3] in DRL, cf. avis, oiseau, ostrich, avestruz: the first two meaning bird in Lat. & Fr., respectively;, the last, ostrich in Sp., no supporting evidence for the aw– root.}. It may be worth noting that Sp. preferes to use a word derived from Lat., passer, sparrow, to designate smaller birds – thus we understand why stork and ostrich are prominent in this etym. note.

академикъ, m.∀: academician.

академистъ, m.∀: academist.

академически, ≠P: academically академическій, –ая ое adj.∀: academical.

000200 академическій, –ая, ое adj.∀: academical.

академія, f. ∀: academy. Gk. ἀκαδημία, name of garden ceded to Plato by Acadēmus.

акажу, incl.: cashew, Braz.: acajaba, in AHD, from Tupi, acajú

аканѲвыя листья, P: from @ >

аканѲы, –овъ, pl., archt., P: acanthus {AHD: Gk.: akantha, ἄκάνθα: spiny plant, Egyptian acacia, ἄκάνθα < (ἀκίς, point), same I.-O. root as акація, ak–.

акація, f. : acacia; Gk. akakia, probably from Egyptian (AHD, D7 {excludes Egyptian}; but @. Reiff, Wo? word derived from the Gk. for thorn, ἀκίς, point, thorn, thus: thorn-tree.

АкаѲистникъ, m.; R: “[religious] service celebrated in the Church of Constantinople in honour of the Holy Virgin on the 5th Saturday of Lent, without being seated, “[religious] service in honour of some saints” [α (not)+ καθίζειν (to sit)]; нпм: book of the “acathistes”; B: book containing the service of the acathistus; P: a churchbook with hymns in honour of Christ, Mary, and the Saints.

АкаѲистъ, m. R: book which contain the above [religious] service; нпм: an “acathiste”,” song to the glory of Our Lord and the Holy Virgin”; B: acathistus, service in honour of the Virgin Mary; P: ecclesiastical hymn to Christ, Mary, or the Saints (+@ supra), cf. newadvent.org/cathen/01092c.htm, accessed 20170314

аквамаринный, –ая ое, adj.∀: aquamarine {adj. as n. in P}, — цвѣтъ; aquamarine colour.

аквамариновый, –ая ое, adj.,∀: aquamarine; P: of aquamarine.

000210 аквамаринъ, m.,∀: aquamarine (beryl imitating colour of sea-water).

акварель, f. ≠R: water-colour, water colour painting, {referring to the making and the final product (акварельная живописъ)}, B: water colours; It., dim. from Lat. aqua, water.

акварельный, –ая ое, adj. ≠R: of water colours, in water colours.

акватинта, f. ≠R: B: aquatint, aquatinta; нпм: wash-drawing etching; P: B + process and result of such etching.

аквилегія, m. нпм: columbine (a plant) (Lat:: aquilegia).

аквилонъ, m.∀: Aquilon, the North Wind (poetical); Lat., so named “because it is swift, as is the flight of the eagle [Lat. aquila] – ТС, p. 33.

аквилонскій, adj. B: [of the] north wind [-] (item not included in numbering).

аки or аки бы, ∀:≠pr, Sl.: as, as if, for, because, as well as < B; in нпм: meanings are not shared, the expression translates: as if, аки as comme.

акилей, m.,∀, P: аклей: @ нпм, and implicit in the other 3: аквилегія.

аккордъ, m.∀: (mus): accord, tune (Lat:, ad + cor(dis), {literally, to the heart}).

аккула, f.,∀: shark (Isl., hakkol).

000220 аккулинъ, –на, но, adj, ≠mp: shark, shark’s

000221 аккуратно, ≠mp: accurately, exactly, punctually, precisely.

аккуратность, f. ≠M: accuracy, exactness, punctuality, precision.

аккуратный, –ая ое, adj., ≠M: accurate, exact, punctual, precise..

аклей, m.∀: species of duck in the Siberian region‡; нпм: @ утка [2] P: аквилегія

‡ Etym. undetermined., yet there is a resemblance to the word “eagle”, the etym. of which goes back no further than the Lat. aquila. Suggestions: If “albatross” can be derived from a word meaning sea-eagle [infra], this latter having little in common with the former except for a hooked beak, and possibly soaring flight; at a time when vocabulary was limited, might not even a duck and an eagle have similar roots? While more apt for the eagle, upon examining the word “soar”, we get a non-expected (and unattested) etym. of ex + aurare (from Vulgar Lat.. the 2nd component from aura, air, breath, root we–, [with an Old Norse root, vængr, > “wing”]). Using ex + aura, dropping the final “a”, substituting for the 1st vowel, and making the r to l transformation, axaul is obtained. Now, dropping the “s” sound, as do some Mediterranean speakers, we have akaul-, which could give us either Аклей, or aquila. The root for sky, another Old Norse word, from a possibly common Germanic source, skewja (AHD), generates this: Dismissing the “s” as above, yet, in an attempt at its pronounciation, an initial vowel is added, cf. statio, stationis in Latin, estación in Sp. The Gr. “j” is “y”, often represented by “ll” in Sp. This gives ekewlla, > ekoula, > aquila. The reader may prefer aquila’s derivation from aqua, because it is a bird the colour of water, as claimed on p. 14 of EDP. At a minimum, duck is included. Note. Dr. Nourai admits that his source gives no evidence, but <etymonline.com/index.php?term=aquiline&allowed_in_frame=0>, accessed 20170310, gives the same information, this latter admits that the Etymologicum Magnum disagrees about the connection between water and black. No clues from ADN, no eagle derived from aqua at #122, pp. 200-1.

аколитъ, m. ≠P: acolyte; cleric promoted to the first of four minor orders and who accompanies Catholic priests at the altar. This definition may not be applicable to current practices. Gk.: ἀκόλουθος, valet.

акомпаниманъ, ≠pr: accompaniment {probably an imitation of French, as opposed to the next, which would be English}.

акомпаниментъ, m. ≠bm: (Mus.), accompaniment.

акомпанированіе, n. ≠P: акомпаниманъ.

акомпанировать,∀: to accompany someone who sings or plays; B omits the qualifier. Gr. accompagniren [sic] from Fr.

акомпанироваться, ≠pr: Reflexive form, probably used only in mus., MAF has “accompany oneself on the piano”.

000230 акордъ, m. ≠br: @ аккордъ.

акредитованіе, n. ≠R: accreditation (in diplomacy); certification.

акредитованный, p. part. ≠R: accredited.

акредитовать, ≠R: accredit (diplomat); to open a crédit to, to give credit (Comm),

—ся: to be accredited, B > to get into credit, to deliver one’s letters of credence.

акрида, f. [нпм, coll., Sl. P:] ≠br: locusts; P: саранча; Gk.: ἀκρίδες, ἀκρίδος in PSI, GDS: locust, grasshopper.

акриды: f. pl., ≠mp: locust, cf. supra.

акробатъ, m., ≠br: acrobat.

акростихъ, m.,∀: acrostic (Gk., components literally = end-line (AHD)).

аксамитъ, m.,∀: velvet (R: silk velvet); Gk. ἐξάμιτον {6 threads, D7}.

аксамитный, –ая ое, adj., ≠B: (of) velvet

000240 аксельбантъ, m., mil.,∀: B: shoulder-knot; R: {epaulet}; … worn by adjutants on their uniform; Gr.: {Achselband}, shoulder + band, ribbon.

аксіома, f., ∀, [P: in math]: axiom,; Gk.: ἀξίομα, from ἄξιος: worthy.

аксіомъ, f., P: ditto. Item not included in word count.

аксіосъ, m., ≠mp: B: worthy; R: the worthy, the “dignified”, term used at the consecration of a clergyman; etym.@ previous.

аксометръ, {m.}, B: tell-tale of the tiller; {refers to ship’s rudder}; аксіометръ in ТС, of Latin origin, inconsistently with similar words which are said to be from Greek, p.36, [48, or аксіометръ].

актёрскій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: actor’s, actors’; P: акт—ое жалованье: actor’s pay.

актёрство, n., нпм: the profession of actors.

актёрствовать, ≠P: to be an actor, to work as an actor.

актёръ, m.∀: actor, +, in R: comedian; etym. @ 000092 for all words with root Акт

актриса, f. ≠P: actress, +, in R: comedienne.

актуаріусъ, m.,∀: actuary; Lat.: actuarius.

000250 актъ, m.,∀, R: act, document, formal meeting; нпм: annual meeting (+ the previous and very last defntn here); B: roll, deed; session; [legal] document, record, etc.; P: (Verbandungsschrift: Marriage certificate) [theatrical] act, [school, university] : ceremony, exercise, e.g. commencement.

акты, m., pl., ≠P: trans. by B: documents, deeds, records, +R: the business of the Bar.

акула, ≠br: @аккула ,                                                Аку– ROOTS FROM LATIN

акупунктура, f., нпм: acupuncture.

акуратно, нпм: accurately, exactly, punctually, precisely.

акуратность, f., нпм: accuracy, exactness, punctuality, precision.

акуратный, –ая ое, adj., нпм: accurate, exact, punctual, precise.

акустика, f. ∀: acoustics..

акустически, нпм:acoustically.

акустическій, –ая ое, adj. ∀: acoustic.

000260 акушерскій, –ая ое, adj.∀: helpful in delivery (midwifery); delivery (as in a delivery ward)-

акушерство, n., ≠br: midwifery (Fr. coucher, from Lat. collocare)

акушеръ, m.∀: accoucheur, man midwife.

акушировать, ≠mp: to deliver (assist in birth).

акцентъ, m., нпм: accent, accentuation.                Акцепт- ROOTS FROM LATIN.

акцептантъ, m., comm.∀: acceptor.

акцептaторъ, m.. comm. ≠br: acceptor.

акцептація, f., comm.∀: acceptance (of a letter of exchange).

акцептованіе, n., comm. ≠M: acceptance.

акцептованный, p. part., ≠pr: accepted.

000270 акцептовать,∀: to accept [to pay] (a letter of exchange); bracketed parts from R and mp respectively.

акциденціи, –iй, f. pl., ≠bm: perquisites, revenue fortuitously arrived at through one’s office; Lat.: accidere, arrive.

акциденція, f., pl. ≠pr: ditto (singular form).

акцизна, f., ≠P: excise tax office/bureau, inland revenue agency

акцизный, –ая ое, adj.∀: excise, of excise.

акцизъ, m.∀: excise [tax] {ad + censum: tax (AHD)}; P: [не] подлежашій акцизу: [not] excisable; освобожденіе отъ акциза: excise-exempt.

акціонерное обчество, n., P: (public) limited company; (stock) corporation.

акціонеръ, m.∀: actionary, shareholder.

акціонный, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: share, of a share.

акція, f.,∀: share, stock {general definition}; + R: military engagement (heat of combat), action, as the operation of a commercial company; P: quota (to an enterprise); share warrant, stock certificate.

алавастровый, see алебастровый.

000280 алавастръ, [1, ≠R] see алебастр, [2, P] Sl.: vessel for balms or fragrances.

аладья, f.∀: type of small beignet or fritter fried in oil; R: dim. аладушка; Gk. ἐλάδια, from ἔλαιον.

алантъ корень, m., B: (inula heleníum) elecampane; Gk.: Helenion, ἑλένιον (AHD: elecampane + Lat. < campus (field). {First word seems to be from the root of Helenion, (ἑλένιον), while the second component is Rus., “root”(GZP)}

‡ Meaning, according to Pliny, “tears of Helena”, cf: Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg), “Helenium”, in: Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity volumes edited by: Hubert Cancik and , Helmuth Schneider. Acc.: 15 March 2017 dx.doi.org/10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e506170 First published online: 2006. First print edition: 9789004122598, 20110510.

алапера, m., нпм: membrane which covers the sea–cow. No clear indication exists about this, it may be sheddable epidermis, like slough, either through disease, or a natural process. Conclusion based on (1) defntn. given in ТСЖ, p. 8, with abbr. suggesting an origin from the Archangel region. Two question marks suggest the compiler himself had doubts. (2) Research shows the whales can be diseased: with a type of dermatitis: jwildlifedis.org/doi/pdf/10.7589/0090-3558-25.4.608, and that in the walrus “the skin is very thick, black, full of asperities, and invests the whole body like a hard crust; thus affording a protection against the ice and angular projections of rocks”, David Brewster, et. al., The Edinburgh Encyclopædia, Vol. 12, [Philadelphia: J. and E. Parker, 1832], accessed 20170317.

алафа f., B: food, salary, tribute, referencing лафа, (p. 513, [543], which, as in R, p. 491 [581], is pop. Source: Ar. naf’a, نفعة, which has the same meanings in Mod. Ar. as in does his Rus. translation of лафа, advantage, profit, gain; the modern meaning, also coll., “luck”. Using the hypothesis that the “k” is related to “f”, as, e.g., the word rough has the I.-O. root ruk-, we relate лафа directly to “luck”, and investigate its roots, without much success beyond Gr-ic sources. Nevertheless, in D7, we find a meaning in MHG, [good] (means of) sustenance, which unites B’s translation with the modern, suggesting the Ar. root for the Gr. and En. as well.)

албатросъ, m., ≠mr, B: албатросъ: albatross {Port. alcatraz (pelican) from Ar. al-ghaTTas, white-tailed sea-eagle (AHD), or grebe (DAF), غَطّاس.

албиносъ, P: see альбиносъ.

алгебра, f.,∀: algebra. (Ar. al+jabr {الجَبْر, putting together the pieces, applied esp. to broken bones}.

алгебраическій, –ая ое, adj.∀,: algebraic, algebraical.

алгебраисть, m.,∀: algebraist.

000290 алгебристь, m., ≠bm: ditto.

алебарда, f.,∀: halberd. RAE, D7, AHD give the origin as German – 1st part, handle, 2nd: axe. R gives the root as Ar., al – Harba, الحَرْبة without further explanation, and an incorrect Arabic rendering (giving al-jarba) The translations of the Ar. are pike, javelin, bayonet, or lance; at least in modern times. The root of this word is Harb, حَرْب, war. {While this point of view is ties in very well with the military connotation, the more recent explanation, especially as given in AHD, is considered the correct one: there is a symbolic association in various languages between the beard and the axe, a bit more colourful than the Pokorny version, in that the former stresses patriarchal symbolism, the latter, because the iron of a hatchet stands out like a beard. (Cf. entry under bhardhā. (The word halberd is not found here.) The Ar., which translates halberd into English as lance with a head of plate, i.e., axe on a lance. (found in FCH only), would need to explain r > l, the additional suffix, and the axe-imagery.}

алебардистъ, m., ≠mp: halberdier.

алебардникъ, m., нпм: a species of plant, xiphide.‡ алебардочка, f.: dim.: алебарда

Sifidio, Xiphidium, Xiphide e Glaivane. (bot.) … Dizionario etimologico di tutti i vocaboli usati nella medicina, chirurgia, veterinaria, farmacia, chimica, storia naturale, fisica e astronomia che traggono origine dal greco compilato da Bonavilla Aquilino coll’assistenza del professore di lingua greca abate D. Marco Aurelio Marchi. Tomo 1. books.google.com/books?id=2oujusyi_24C&pg=PA374&lpg=PA374&dq=xiphide. Accessed 20170314.

алебардщикъ, m.,∀: halberdier.

алебастритъ, m., ≠нпм: alabastrite. (the alabaster stone) Gk. alabasron, ἀλαβάσρον (but OxF alabast(r)os, & comment: dubious etym. The entry should be ἀλαβάστρον, Florencio I. Sebastián Yarza, Diccionario Griego-Español, [Barcelona: Ramón Sopena, 1945]; GDS gives R`s form as an additional New Testament variant of ἀλαβάστρος.) {alabastros, AHD, (from Egyptian à-la-Baste, vessel of (the goddess) Baste‡} –

‡ Anne K. Capel, Glenn Markoe, (Eds.), Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt, (Cincinnati Art Museum, Brooklyn Museum) [New York: Hudson Hills, 1996]. Cf.: snippet view page 140 on: books.google.com/books?id=1pkH3QP390gC, accessed 20170308.

алебастровый, –ая ое, adj.,∀: alabaster, alabastine.

алабастровый, adj., R: ditto, in addition to the above

алебастръ, m.,∀: alabaster..

алегро, n. indec., mus., нпм: allegro.

000300 алезанъ, ТС: brown color tending to ginger, cf. Sp. alazán; Ar. al-az’ar, the red (one)

александрійская бумага, ≠R: royal paper. {refers to a paper size of 25 × 20 inches, p. 756, search 768, in TC, under entry “Royal-papier”, given as of Fr. origin, defined as very large format, translated into Russian as shown under this entry.}

александрійскій, –ая ое, adj., ≠R, ½P:: Alexandrian, Alexandrine

александрійскій кустъ, P: (cassia senna) senna (plant).

александрійскій листъ, ≠R: (medicinal) senna (leaves). B: (cassía acutifolía): Alexandrian senna.

александрійскій стручки, P: senna pods.

алембикъ,∀: alembic; Ar. Al-embik {more correctly, il-anbeeq: إلانْبيق [p. 24, DAF]. AHD states that anbig comes from the Gk., ambix, ἄμβιξ, cup.

000307 аленькій, –ая ое, adj. ≠mr: P: reddish; B: rather rosy-coloured, ruby, or cherry, {perhaps Turkish, “al”, red (old form, لا, cf. DTF, p. 171, [207]) Valid for all entries about “red” or associated colours beginning with ал.}

алепнна, ТС: black fabric of wool and silk from Aleppo; etym.: Aleppo (p.40, [52]). According to a web page found 20170517, the name is “alepine”, black was the original colour; The Fairchild Books Dictionary of Textiles, 8th ed., Phyllis G. Tortora, Ingrid Johnson, [New York: Bloomsbury, 2013], p. 11: books.google.com/books?id=LTYfAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA11.

алёхонекъ, –нька, –нько, adj., ≠R: P: extremely red (über und über rot); B: very rosy; нпм: алый, q.v.

000310 алёшенекъ, –нька, –нько: ditto.

али, P: pop. form for или.

алигаторъ, m., нпм: alligator; Sp. alargato < Lat. ille, (that) + lacertus (lizard).

алидада, f.∀, variant in R: алидадъ, m.: alidade {A primitive surveying instrument}; P: Diopterlineal; Ar.: al – hèda: the straight road, الهُدًى, but AHD al-‘iDaada, from Ar. root ’aDud, عَضُٔد, {words expressing the idea of an arm.}

ализна, f., B: алость, rosiness, rubiness (probable Turkish root: cf: аленькій.

аликвантный, –ая ое, adj. ≠P: aliquante; (Lat.) {Refers to a divisor, which upon division, leaves a remainder in the natural number system. Cf. in Fr.: fr.thefreedictionary.com/aliquante}.

аликвотный, –ая ое, adj. ≠P: aliquot, (Lat.).

алить, B: to rubify, to redden.

алифа, f.,∀: B: drying oil; R: type of lacquer or varnish used in/on paintings; нпм: huile cuité; P: linseed oil, varnish (under олифа); mod. Gk: ἀλειφὴ.

алифленіе, n., ≠mp, B: covering with drying oil; R: action of varnishing.

000320 алифленный, p. part. of алифть, B: covered with drying oil.

алифть, ∀: R: to varnish; нпм: to give a coat of oil; B: to cover with drying oil; P: to coat with linseed oil, or varnish, (artistic term) (under олифть).

алкадъ, m., B: alkaid; {Ar., al-qa’id, القِٔد, commander < qād, قاد: command {not to be confused with the group known as Al-Qaida, allegedly of a different root, simply meaning “the base”, القاعِٔد. Exact transcriptions are not possible in the Latin alphabet.}.

алкали, incl.,∀: alkali; Ar. al-kali, saltwort, AHD al-qaliy, القَلي, the ashes (of saltwort); from qalay, القَلَى, to fry.

алкализація, f., ≠нпм: alkalinization.

алкализировать, ≠mp: to alkalize.

алкализовать, R: to alkalize.

алкалиметръ, m., P: {alkalinity meter}.

алкалическій, –ая ое, adj. ≠R: alkaline.

алкалоидъ, m., P: alkaloid, an organic base.

000330 алканіе, n.,∀: hunger; + R: ardent desire; + нпм: fig., thirst, e.g. for wealth, glory; B: thirsting, longing; P: Sl., + чего: P: vehement desire for something; {000405 for this and related items}.

алкатель, m. ≠mp: B: thirster, longer [sic]; R: one who is desirous, impassioned, passionate. {If a noun is to serve as the translation, it is suggested that it be something like zealot, fanatic, ardent admirer, devotee, or desirer.}

алкать, взалкать,∀: v.n. to hunger; +, in B: to thirst for, long; +, in P: to be ravenous; || v.a.. R: to ardently desire (чего); нпм: fig., ardently desire (v. pattern undefined); P: + чего: fig., thirst, strive, clamour, e.g. fame, wealth. (2 different conjugation patterns); etym. possibly ἀλγεῖν: to feel pain (Gk. unclear, cf. 000405).

алкіонъ, m. ≠pr: kingfisher, зимороднокъ, (alcedo ispida); Gk. halcyon, kingfisher, ἀλκυών.

000334 алковъ, B: alcove (variant spelling below) {Ar. al-qubba, القُبة, dome}.

алкоголическій, adj., ≠P: alcoholic.

алкоголометръ, m., P: alcoholometer.

алкоголь,∀: alcohol; Ar.: al-kuHl, الڪُل, antimony > fine, dry powder; collyrium, {nicely explained in D7}

алкоранъ, m.,∀: The Koran, Alcoran; Ar.: al-quraan: القُرٲن , from root meaning “to read”.

алкотa, f., ≠R: нпм: desire to eat, appetite; B: appetite; P: Sl., abstention from meals, fast(ing). Etym: This, and some other entries are related to Gr. lechzen, with meanings associated with explanation in 000405..

000340 аллахъ, ≠pr: Allah, Ar., allah, God, الله., variant алла exists in ТС, p. 42 [52].

аллегорикъ, m., B: allegorist, allegorizer.

аллегористъ, m.,∀: ditto.

аллегорически, ≠P: allegorically.

аллегорическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: allegorical.

аллегорія, f.,∀: allegory; Gk.: allo: ἄλλο, other + agoreuein: ἀγορεύειν, speak (in public){< agora, ἀγορα, assembly}.

аллегретто, incl. mus., P: allegretto. Accent unmarked.

аллегро, m. incl. mus., B: allegro

аллейка, f.: dim., ≠mp: a small alley {a path in a garden or park}.

аллейный, adj., ≠P: of an alley; alley.

000350 аллея, f.,∀: narrow walk, lane, drive, path, alley.

аллигаторъ, P: see кайманъ.

аллилуія, f., ≠mp: hallelujah, allelujah, alleluia; Hebr.: הַלְּלוּיָהּ, halleluiah, praise be to God: {transcribed as seen in R, LHE differs slightly}.

аллодіальный, adj., ≠R: allodial.

аллодъ, m., ≠br: allodium, alodium. {In AHD, of Frankish origin, in RAE, Germanic, not mentioned in D7, Wo? gives compound formation of root meaning “all”, “complete” and “ōt”, possession, property, estate, hence, a totally-owned property, free of feudal obligations}.

аллопатическій, –ая ое, adj., ≠R: allopathic, allopathical.

аллопатически, нпм: allopathically. Item not included in count.

аллопатія, f., ≠R: allopathy; {Gk. compounds}.

аллопатъ, m., ≠R: allopathist.

алмазецъ, –зца, m, dim.,∀: small diamond.

алмазикъ, m, dim.,∀: small diamond.

000360 алмазить, ≠P: R: to set a diamond; нпм: cut (a diamond); B: to cut diamonds, to jewel.

алмазникъ, m.,∀: diamond cutter, jeweller (in P, this is not the cutter).

алмазный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: diamond, jewelled; R: —ная искра: diamant de vitrier, {Glazier’s diamond}, étincelle: {possible current meanings, glass-cutting tool; spark, (respectively)}.

алмазчикъ, m. ≠br: [1] diamond cutter, [2] jeweller.

алмазщикъ, m. ≠mp: diamond cutter, jeweller.

алмазъ, m.∀: diamond; / jewel, glazier’s diamond; B: плоскогранённый —: a table diamond; (alternate translation found on web, “plane-faced diamond”, [Edward Erlich, W. Dan Hausel, Diamond Deposits: Origin, Exploration, and History of Discovery, [Littleton, CO: SME, 2002]; p. 56, acc.: 20170318; and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_cut]), красный —: ruby [but perhaps a literal translation, cf.: RED DIAMONDS – THE RAREST OF THEM ALL Cape Town Diamond Museum 2016, capetowndiamondmuseum.org/blog/2013/04/red-diamonds/. Acc.: 20170318.]; (Ar., Pers.: al-maas; ألماس, diamond).

алмазы, m. pl. ≠P: diamonds; jewels, precious stones.

алманзоръ, m., ТС, имя: protector, victor; {Ar.: el-mansoor, المنصور, the victorious one, from a root, n-S-r, meaning “to help”}. Item not included in word count. The Ar. is: منصور‎‎, perhaps the compiler was thinking about أبو العباس أحمد المنصور‎‎, Ahmad Abu al-Abbas al-Mansur.

алмудъ, m., ТС, dry weight measure for cereal grains equal to 0.262 четв. (6.87 litres, 1 ½ gallons, or .75 of a peck (Br. version), 0.78 peck (U.S.); or a liquid measure for Portugal, 16.31 litres, 4.31 gallons (U.S.). Conversions through W9 and LTR. RAE gives the etymology as Ar., المٌدّ, a dry measure, sometimes liquid, varying over time and place: al-mudd, trans. into Fr. as muid, a grain measure, in DAF.

ало, adv. [sic,in B‡] ≠pr: нпм: of a rosy or ruby colour, also ало / нпм, of a light red, ало, B: same as above (Etym. for all words with prefix “ал–“ and meaning “red” or reddish colours @ 000307).

‡ The adv. redly exists in AHD, rosily, of course, requires a different interpretation; grammatically, the former would not be the answer to, “How was it painted?” Ans. “Red”, but to, e.g., “How did the embers glow?” (OxF gives the use of “redly” as “rare”, but this is an adj., then.). Cf. the question about the painting with, “How did he run?” and its ans., “Fast”; and “How do you say ‘red’ in Russian?” The last answer is neither adj. nor adverb. We suspect that the mistake here is confusing the adverb form with the short form of the adj., which are often identical, although W9 gives “in a red manner, with a red colour” as adverbial forms).

ало, interjection, B: holloa!; кричать — to hail a ship.

000370 аловатость, f., B: rosiness.

аловатый, adj. ≠R, in нпм, dim.: @ 000307

алое, n.,P: aloe; (RAE: Gk., AHD: Gk., probably of Oriental origin; Wo?: from Hebrew ahālīm: אֲהָלֽים, [LHE] ); item not included in word count, see алой.

алой, m.∀: aloe (singular, except JBD), variants found, алое and алоэ, incl., ≠mp: aloe.

алойнъ, ТС: alkaloid found in aloe plant: aloin (AHD).

алойный, –ая ое, adj.∀: of the aloe, aloe, aloetic.

алокъ, аликъ, m., B: set of dogs for a sled; {etym. possibly from Lapland or Siberia, but many –ok endings are Turkish}.

алонжевый парикъ, нпм: “full-bottomed wig”, a translation indirectly given from Большой англо – русский и русско – английский словарь. 2001.) type of wig with 3 “marteaux” {a large horizontal rolled up wave of hair}.

алопеція, ТС: alopecia; {Lat. alopēcia, (AHD) mange of fox, < Gk. alōpēx, [AHD, W9], fox; but “vixen” (zorra) in PSI.}.

алость, f.,∀: B: rosiness, rubiness; redness, нпм: vermilion; P: die Röthe:, redness, blush. {Fr. words also suggest blush, colours of the cheek or lips}..

алоцвѣтникъ, m., P: Бековина, P: salvia horminum, salve for scarlet fever, more at @ 000307.

000380 алтaбасный, adj. ≠P: brocade (see next).

алтaбасъ, m.: brocade; [R: material of silk brocaded with gold] {ТС: bad Turkish (?), “gold woven brocade, which was used in olden times in Russia”. DTF shows iltibas as confusion, dissimulation (175, pdf 211), iltifaf, the probable root, as (1) a draping, (2) meeting of interlaced branches. (177), possibly a compound, as altoon is gold (p. 178, pdf. 214). . التون, , the true root is al-dibadj, الدباج, brocade, (DAF, related to v. meaning decorate, LDA).

алтaрный, –ая ое, adj. ≠R: (of the) altar [нпм includes definition “sanctuary”].

алтaръ, m. ≠R: altar ( + above).

алтей, m., нпм: althea; Gk. healer < heal. {only form in GDS and GEL with “alth” is ἄλθομαι, to heal, in the sense of to become cured.

алтіметріа, f.. нпм: altimetry.

алтіметръ, m., нпм: altimeter.

алтынный, –ая ое, adj. ≠P: Fr.: d’altyne, see below. / нпм: costing 3 kopecks; 3-kopeck-

алтынникъ, m.∀: ancient 3 kopeck coin; one who makes small profits; penny pincher, miser, cheapskate; R: пяти–алтынникъ, 15 kopeck coin.

алтынничать, pop.,∀: to hoard (money, {possibly, to haggle, to dicker}); P: [1] to accept small gifts, to let oneself be bribed by trifles, [2] to be stingy.

000390 алтыны, m. pl., B: profits, emoluments.

алтынъ, m. ≠R: imaginary 3 kopeck coin; нпм: an ancient coin of 3 k.; Fr.: altine); алтынникъ; (Tatar: alti tènguè – six “dènga” ≈ 6 coins); пожалѣть алтына, потерять полтину: expr.: (Literal from Fr.: It’s the same spending miserly as profusely. {Penny-pinching is the same as wasting money, probably from the point of view of the fault involved in either case.}).

алудель, m. P: pot {for sublimation?}, الأثال, al-ʾuṯāl, ‘the sublimation-vessel’; {probable root as found in FCH, waththal, to make fast, to mold, to reunite, one irrelevant derivative, nothing in smaller Ar. dictionaries, no exact match on search of 20170322, possible translation (of a bad translation): “that which is extracted from the endoderm” (giving a meaning related to the preceding: sublimation, reuniting, almaany.com/ar/dict/ar-ar/الوثل.

алуминитъ, m., P: Gr.Aluminit, i.e. aluminite.

алфа, f. ≠R: alpha, beginning; (Gk.).

алфабитны, –ая ое, adj.∀: alphabetical.

алфабитъ, m.∀: alphabet. по алфабиту, по алфабитамъ: in alphabetical order.

алхимическій, –ая ое, adj.∀: alchemic; B: alchymical.

алхимикъ, m.∀: alchemist; B: alchymist.

алхимистъ, m., ≠: alchemist; B: alchymist

000400 алхимія, f.∀: alchemy. B: alchymy; Ar.: al-kimia: الكيمياء, {also representing the word “chemistry”}(AHD has this as an Egyptian word, from a word Kh’mi, from khem, black, Egypt being known to the Greeks as the Black Land. D7, Wo? only go as far back as the Arabs, [W9], to the Greeks.) {At least by coincidence, although we are not talking about Indo-European words, we see a centum vs. satem language phenomenon, as Ham, the biblical father of the Hamites, which includes Khēmia, (one-time Greek word for Egypt), vs. Shem, father of the Semites.}

алчба, f. ≠R: P: [1] hunger, [2] greed, avarice / нпм: avidity, thirst for; B: (all definitions): hunger, thirst, avidity, greediness, longing.

000405 for etym. of all words with Алч-.

алчиникъ, m., P: bulimus, Vielfraßschnecke, glutton. Item not in word count.

алчинчать,∀: to be insatiable; to desire avidly, to be avid / to thirst for, to long, to be insatiable / covet, crave.

алчно, adv. ≠P: avidly / thirstily, insatiably, with avidity, greedily.

алчность,∀ f.: нпм, къ чему: avidity, thirst for: B: алчба, valid for P.

000405 алчный, –ая ое, adj.: ∀ avid, hungry, insatiable / thirsty, insatiable, greedy / [1] ravenous, voracious [2] insatiable; (къ чему): greedy, covetous.

(NOTE: THIS SERIES OF WORDS WAS under алкатель in R) {Russian root: ALK-, hungry, greedy, p. 14, GZP; *òlčьnъ, adj., hungry, and òlkati, to be hungry, SIL, pp. 29, 365 (377 pdf). The root seems to tie in with the argument made under алчно, for the German, in that the Ar. for to gather has the word (root) لقط, l-q-T (own research), cf òlkati. The emphasis is gathering in the sense of gleaning, suggesting action taken by the hungry, the poor (Leviticus 23:22), cf. ADN, #722, p.744, giving Sl. root ol-kati, Slv. and Cz. lákati, Ar. hakata, Ar. root h-l-k, to be extremely avid}.

алчущій, p. B: thirsting for, longing.

алый, adj.∀: light-red, flesh-coloured: B: rosy, rubу, cherry, vermilion; P: light-red, pink; (lips): purple.

алырить, ∀; pop., obs., P: to trick, cheat, dupe (Persian, al, آل, deceit) /P: фокусничать, to juggle, to do sleights-of-hand & фиглярить,Gr.: sich geberden / gebärden: possibly includes meaning of expressing oneself through gestures, but does have following idea: to juggle, to do sleights-of-hand); [2] cheat, deceive, do rascally tricks.

алырскій, -ая ое, adj. ≠P: deceitful, trickish (Persian, al , آل, deceit).

000410 алырство, n.,∀, obs., < P: cheating, trickery; (& P’s n. equivalents for his definitions at Алырить}.

алырщкъ, m.∀, obs., < P: deceiver, cheater; (& P’s n. equivalents for his definitions at Алырить}.

алыря, m.∀, obs., <P: deceiver, cheater; (& P’s n. equivalents for his definitions at Алырить}.

аль, али, P: pop. form for или.

альбиносъ, m. ≠br: albino, {with additional possible translations through P of “cockroach” (Kakerlak) and Weissling, but these are more probably synonyms. P and нпм show differently-accented syllables, word is not in the other two dictionaries, etym. Lat. albus (white)] {Gk., alphos, pale white.: < AHD, and from Oxford; ancient Greek ἀλϕός dull-white (en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/alphos, acc.: 20170303)}

альбомъ, m.∀: album, a cahier for one of various usages; (of which P lists, in addition to “Album” and its equivalent, Stammbuch, Denkbuch, and “sketchbook”. The translation would seem to be “family album”, such as seen several times in the movie Buddenbrooks (2008).

альбомный, -ая ое, adj. ≠br: (of an) album.

альбумъ, m., P: album..

альковъ, m.,∀: alcove, recessed area in a room in which to place a bed; (etym. @ 000334).

альковный, adj., нпм: (of an) alcove.

000420 альманахъ, m.∀: almanac. нпм includes in his Fr. dictionary the word “keepsake”.

{Opinions vary greatly about the origin of this word. Oxford Concise gives it as medieval Latin of dubious etym. R gave, earlier, the opinion that it was Ar., al-minha, astronomical ephemeralities. His rendering of the Arabic, modernized, would be المنحة, but no such word was found, nor does it correspond to the translation of the word. D7 and AHD agree with the Oxford just cited, giving the Latin as almanachus. Wo? gives Greek-Egytian, almenichiaká. AHD’s version: W9, on the other hand, renders the medieval Latin as almanach, and suggests the origin is the Ar. al-manck of the same meaning. Unless the “kh” here is a different way of expressing R”s “h”, this would be a different word, also not found. [kh: خ, not ح]. RAE gives Ar. al-manāj, the equivalent in Sp. of al-manākh, adding that this comes from a Latin term, manachus, meaning “circle of the months”. This would suggest that the medieval Latin form came not from the original Latin, but circuitously, through the Arabic. What was not said is that roots such as منخ, (conforming to the “kh” version) are, in Arabic, not the roots, rather, it is an “m” prefixed root, نوخ, (n-W-Kh, oppress in DAF, with modern Arabic (al) moon-AKh as almanach, same root is given as meaning to flatten in FCH, no mention of almanac, but words related to (al)-moon-AKh as given as neo-classical, one agreeing with LDA. FC2, in an attempt at a reverse look-up, gives no similar word. Basic Arabic meanings concur with Hebrew, “place of rest”. Eliminating the last consonant, we get the idea of “part, portion”, an unsatisfactory solution, also found in an old En. word, related to a measure of weight, so, imagining part of the calendar year as equivalent to a portion of weight (?)}.

альпари, adv., нпм: au рair.

альтистъ, m.∀: countertenor singer or performer.

альтистый, adv., нпм: countertenor

альтъ, m.∀: countertenor, voice of a countertenor, alto, countertenor viol, bass violin, viola, quinte de basse {apparent reference to the 5th string of the instrument}. || P: 2nd definition, countertenor violin. || пыть -–а: sing countertenor, cf.: играть на –-ю: play (a) countenor (instrument). [Lat.; altus, high]

альфреско, m. incl. ≠br: fresco. (W. Germ. origin, [AHD, D7, Wo?], frisk [RAE], D7 expressing an obscure origin of that Gr.-ic word.).

алѣть,∀: to become rosy, flesh-coloured, + R: light red, 000307.

алѣться, ≠R: to appear rosy, flesh-coloured, light red , to begin to become rosy, flesh-coloured, or light red {to begin to dawn} 000307

алюминій, m.. нпм: Аluminium, aluminum; Lat.: alumen.

Absence of this word in dictionaries can be explained by its very recent discovery. Not until 10 years after Reiff’s work were little globules of melted aluminum produced. Industrially, it was not made until 1856 – in Rouen, France – and it took a span of 36 years to prepare 200 tonnes. We might compare this to the 5937.5 kilograms of gold mined in New Zealand (190,000 oz.) in 1937. That would make over 200 tons in 36 years, but who would prefer, at present, Al over Au? [N.Z. data from Knaurs Welt Atlas, Berlin, 1939]

аляповато, adv. ≠pr: B: clumsily, coarsely || нпм: incl.: of bad taste.

«Occurs from adj. ludicrous, then from the verb ляпать, {to beat (with the flat of the hand (LDR)}, the original value being “to slap, clap, and thump; to throw something viscous, wet, soft “; then – “do it roughly, as if it were horrible”; clumsy “grossly, clumsily done”; modification of the word “larky”. The data of the dictionary of M. Fasmer with the comments of O.N. Trubachev are used.» < This is a partially corrected bad machine translation (e.g. abbreviation for “verb” translated as “Ch”). This data “roughly” approximates the results of our own research, under аляповатый, following the next entry. The original Russian text consulted: Происходит от прил. аляповатый, далее из гл. ляпать, первоначальное знач. которого — «шлёпать, хлопать, бухать; бросать что-нибудь вязкое, мокрое, мягкое»; затем — «делать грубо, как попало»; аляповатый «грубо, топорно сделанный» представляет собой видоизменение слова *оляповатый. Использованы данные словаря М. Фасмера с комментариями О. Н. Трубачёва; ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/аляповато#Этимология Acc: 20170314.

000430 аляповатость, f.: — || unpolished work || clumsiness, coarseness || = B.

аляповатый, –ая ое, adj.: — || crudely worked || clumsy, coarse, rough -|| = B

{el-3 : ol- : “to rot” into elkʷh- caused kʷ > p, Slavic chabiti – ‘spoil”, chabenъ /*xabiti v. ‘spoil / alp- alpant; lē̆ b-, lō̆ b-, lāb-, leb- (PkP); {*xabati, *xabiti, to spoil p.201. (pdf: 212), SI: the preceding based on our own guess, where we show the consonants literally, and the vowels as “v”: vL(?)vPvB, taking the “al” portion as a prefix, but better: ADN, #1828, p. 1735, a root, app. patx, meaning beat, strike, first entry is Hamitic-Semitic p-t-t, (break into small pieces,crumble, for which we find, for Ger,, in LDA, zerfallen, p>f, with prefix ta-, tafattata, تَفَتَّتَ, from root, without the “ta”, in LaR, some differently vowelled forms of the root in FCH, the prefixed form is reflexive. The f-t-t form is also given, apparently with the preceding example in mind. An interesting omission is the word “pat”, considered in AHD as probably imitative, but considering all the derivatives in ADN with PAT, this could be a diminutive form, light beating, striking, instead of heavier blows. A more convincing connection to the Russian is not made, some suggestions are entries: 2479 (wet), 2483 pla1dos < 1702 (best fit), 196 interesting, 1260 has fit with PkP words. There is also the etym. of аляповато above from the Russian Wiktionary}

амазонка, f. нпм: — || Amazon || Amazon || Amazon, heroic woman, [2] a species of beetle (Amazonenkäfer, Scarabaeus Amazonus Linn. < (Allgemeine Geschichte der Natur: in alphabetischer Ordnung … nach Bomarischer Einrichtung. Von Alaun bis Aouai [Aovai], Volumen 2; Berlin, Joachim Pauli, 1775 Friedrich Heinrich ; Wilhelm Martini; Acc.: 20170320) Cyclocephala amazona < gbif.org/species/5812021 Cyclocephala amazona > americaninsects.net/b/cyclocephala-amazona.html; both of the preceding accessed 20170320.) Depending on the yr. that the term was first used as such, in Gr., it also means horsewoman (rider). {Opinions differ widely: AHD: from an old Iranian root, from magh-2, viz. *ha-ma-zan, “possibly” borrowed by the Gk., meaning, the warrior. W9: Gk. (n-pr. + mazos, breast, i.e. without –), Wo?, Gk. from Scythian, amajani, (probably Gr. spelling for amayani), dominant woman, right of a mother; D7 only goes back as far as Gk.}

амазонскій, adj.: — || — || Amazonian || — .

амальгама, f..∀: amalgam (union of a metal with mercury) || {possible additional meaning: separation of gold and silver with mercury, amalgam* || * || * ; : It., AHD: Medieval Lat., Wo?: Ar. Sp. It., related to Gk. málagma, and suggests this might mean “soft substance”.

амальгамація, f., ∀: amalgamation.

амальгамированіе, n., P: amalgamation.

амальгамировать,∀: to amalgamate.

аманатъ, m.: hostage. Ar.; امانت, hostage, person held as guarantee for an agreement (Reiff’s extended defntn.)

амарантовый, –ая ое, adj.∀: of amaranth || of the colour of amaranth || amaranthine, amaranth || .

000440 амарантъ, m.,∀: amaranth + passe-velours, P adds Gr. Tausendschön, daisy.

{Passe-velours is a type of amaranth: nature.jardin.free.fr/annuel/mc_celosia.htm, accessed 20170320, the Tausendschön is the daisy in ordinary language, but there is evidence to suggest that it is also used for Amaranth, “die Blume Tausendschön, Amaranth (in der Poesie), eine eingebildete Blume, die nie werwelkt.“; Johann Ebers, A New Hand-dictionary of the English Language for the Germans and of the German Language for Englishmen, Vol. 1, [—: Renger, 1800], p. 68, books.google.com/books?id=bR0CAAAAYAAJ. Acc.: 20170321. Evidence of the contrast between flower and weedy types, mixing passe-velours, Tausendschön, and a fleur d’amour: Joh. Pet. von Ludwig, intro., Grosses vollständiges Universal Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste, welche bisshero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunden und verbessert worden, Vol. 1, [Halle, Leipzig: Johann Heinrich Bedler (or, Pedler?), 1732], this and next accessed 20170322, books.google.com/books?id=7fdfAAAAcAAJ, col. 1648-1650; same, in Sp., excluding Gr: Esteban Terreros y Pando ((S.I.)), Diccionario castellano con las voces de ciencias y artes y sus correspondientes en las tres lenguas francesa, latina é italiana: A-D, [Madrid: Imprenta de la Viuda de Ibarra, Hijos y Compañia, 1786], books.google.com/books?id=CzadZW_-E2oC

амаранΘъ, m., R: amaranth + passe-velours; Gk.: ἀμάρανθος, imperishable..

аматёръ, m., нпм: amateur (Fr < Lat.)

амбарго, incl.,∀: embargo; Sp. {RAE: vulgar Lat.: imbarricare} || n., embargo || n. || seizure of a ship; embargo [shipping]

амбарецъ, –рца, m.: — || — || a small warehouse || small warehouse (magazine)

000445 амбарный, m.: surveillant: supervisor of a warehouse || warehouse man || warehouseman || no such noun.

амбарный, –ая ое, adj.: of a warehouse || < || warehouse || zum Ambar gehörig

амбарная пошлина, P: warehouse storage fee.

амбарное, m., P: nominalized form of preceding adj..

амбарчикъ, m., B: a small warehouse, (under амбарецъ)

амбарщикъ, m.: owner of a warehouse || < || warehouseman || owner or renter of an “Ambar” or warehouse {After repeated attempts to find “ambar” referenced in Gr., an italicized version was found in an En. text: “[An inscription] refers to the construction of a warehouse or Ambar Khana in 1642 on the way to Balahissar.”: Aniruddha Ray, Towns and Cities of Medieval India: A Brief Survey, [Oxon: Routledge, 13 Sep. 2016], books.google.com/books?id=12IPDQAAQBAJ&pg=PT424&lpg, acc.: 20170322}

000450 амбарщина, f.: storing, warehousing, rental of a warehouse || what must be paid to rent a warehouse, storing, warehousing || warehouse rent || obs. for амбарное

амбаръ, m.: warehouse*, “magazine”**, merchandise depot || “**” || * || *, “ambar”, (Pers. èmbàr, the Persian Arabic script of R is illegible, copied from DPE: En. pronunciation AM-bahr,انبار: help, granary, stock) {Translation as “barn” in WDC.}

хлѣбный амбаръ R: granary; the following only in P: складочный амб—: warehouse (in literal sense, for merchandise); соляной амб амб—: salt depot; наёмщикъ амбара: renter of a warehouse; складывать товары въ амб. To store (the) wares; also see тянуться, (p. 387, 783 pdf), for expression.

амбиціа, f.: written as амбиція: ambition* || an ambition; self-pride (amour propre) || — || — .

амбиціонный, -ая ое, adj.: of ambition, ambitious* || — || * || *

амбра, f.: amber*, курить амброю: to amber || * || *, сѣрая —: ambergris** || Ambra, amber, жидкая —: liquid amber; запахъ —: amber fragrance (scent) (RED: Ar.: amber {?}; AHD: Ar.: ‘anbar: ambergris {عَنْبَر, ambergris, and Neo-arabic for depot, < FCH, cf. 000450 series, this latter fact does suggest a Persian origin.}

амбразура, f., mil. & archt..: embrasure*, tronière || * || * | *, ; Russian from Fr., but origin Gk., brakhiōn, < AHD, βραχίων < {PSI}

амбразурный, –ая ое, adj.: embrasure* || * || * || — ; R: –ные стаивни.

амбреинъ, m., P: Amberfett. Ambrein(e) < ms3.

амбровый, –ая ое, adj., ≠R: (of) amber.

амброзическій, -ая ое, adj.: (of) ambrosia* || * || ambrosial**, ambrosian || ** .

амброзяческій (a variant, or a misreading), ambrosial.

000460 амброзія m.: abrosia* (food of gods and plant)**||*||*|| ** ; Gk.: neg. + brotos***, βροτόσ, mortal < RED; AHD adds that *** is derived from a more ancient mbrotos, the I. – O. Root being mer-, suggested as “possible, but more likely distinct”.

амбросія m., ≠P: амврозія.

амбулaторія, f., P: clinic or hospital for outpatients.

амбушюръ, m., P: embouchure (of a wind instrument), {Fr., bouche, mouth < Lat. bucca}.

амвонный, –ая ое, adj.: — || adj. of ambo || of the ambo || — .

амвонъ m.: ambo*, rood-screen**, speaker’s platform in church ||*,** || *, steps before the altar screen. || 1) lecturn in front of the altar; (2) raised seat in the middle of a church for bishops, Gk. μβων.

амвросическій, –ая ое, adj., R: амброзическій.

амела f., B: (viscum album) mistletoe.

американскій виноградъ, B: (phytolacca decandra) American nightshade.

американскій сипъ, B: king of the vultures.

000470 аметистовикъ m. нпм: la рrime d’Аméthуstе.

A jeweller’s term: an amethyst tending to violet coloration (der ins Violette fällt); Johann Adolph Erdmann Schmidt, Nouveau Dictionnaire français-allemand et allemand-français par J. A. E. Schmidt: (Auch mit dem deutschen Titel: Vollständigstes französisch-deutsches und deutsch-französisches Handwörterbuch. Nach den neuesten Bestimmungen und Forschungen herausgegeben, [Leipzig: Philipp Reclam jun., 1850], p. 718; books.google.com/books?id=D-9DAAAAcAAJ , cf. prime d’éméraude, ins Grüne fallender Smaragd.: an emerald tending towards green, ibid., acc.: 20170323.

аметистовый, –ая ое, adj.: (of) amethyst* ||*|| amethyst, amethystine** || ≅ *, ** .

аметистъ, m.: amethyst* ||*||*|| * ; ἄμέθυς[τ]οσ, < neg. prefix + μεθμ́ειν, to be drunk; AHD adds < μέθυ, wine. The stone worn on a ring was supposed to keep one from becoming intoxicated.

амеѲистъ m., ≠bm: amethyst.

амигдалинъ: m., P: Amygdalin, Mandelstoff : In Gr., George William Askinson, Die Fabrikation der ätherischen Öle, BoD – Books on Demand, 30 jul. 2015 [?: Salzwasser, ? incomplete)], p. 111, books.google.com/books?id=_jJICgAAQBAJ, acc. 20170412.

амигдалитъ m., ≠br: amygdalithe, Mandelstein. From ТС, we get another possible spelling, амигдалолитъ, a stone having an almond shape,, the “almond stone”, BIL repeats this, and gives variant мигдалевикъ, and some other definitions. We find that the mineral amygdule contains almond-like elements which match those in Mandelstein. Wikipedia had not tied the two together as of 20170520.

амигдаловый, adj.: — || @мигдаловый || amygdaline || Sl. @ мигдаловый.

амигдалъ m.: — || @мигдаль || Sl. almond || @мигдаль.

аминекъ, (buрleurum) hаге’s ear‡ < JBD buрleurum rigidum: > {only in Russian web pages) володушка жесткая}.

Bupleurum rigidum. Ang. {En.} Stiff-leaved Hare’s Ear: William II Falconer, Miscellaneous Tracts and Collections Relating to Natural History Selected from the Principal Writers of Antiquity on that Subject, [London: Merrill, 1793] , p. 123, . books.google.com/books?id=w1xTAAAAcAAJ. Acc.: 20170323.

аминь, amen, =; = || = !, аминь глаголю вамъ (Matth. X: 15): Verily, I say unto you.

Etym, per R, Gk. Ar. Hb.; RAE gives Hb. and Ar., AHD Gk. < Hb. {Rs. pronunciation is more similar to Ar. than the other two.}.

000480 аміантовый, –ая ое, adj.: (of) amiant(h)us , = || amianthine || (adj. meaning having quality or derivation of amianthus.

аміантъ, m.: amianth, = || =, amianthus || = ; Gk: neg. + μιαίνειν, corrupt, hence > AHD’s unpolluted (stone).

амми, incl.: ammi, Ethiopian cummin plant; = || ammi, bishop’s weed, {Queen Anne’s Lace} || — Gk. ἄμμι.

000483 амміакъ, m.: — || [salt of] ammoniac* || — || *; AHD gives the origin as of the place, the Temple of Amen in Libya, hence, salt of Amen. Webster’s New Geographical Dictionary (1988) shows the ancient name Ammonium, modern name as Siwa, in the Libyan Desert, but in Egypt. {part of Ancient Libya}

амміякъ, m., P: ditto.

аммодитъ, m., ichth., B: ammodytes, launce.

аммонитъ, m,.: — || ammonite* || * || * ; AHD > so-called as it resembles the horns of the god Amen, cf. 000483.

аммоніакъ, m., P: амміакъ.

аммоновъ рогъ, P: аммонитъ.

аммоново сѣмя, n., B: Jamaica pepper.

000490 aммуничный, –ая ое, adj., R: (of) munitions, cf. 000500.

aмнистія, f.,∀: amnesty, (P: aмнистія ); Gk. neg. prefix + μνασθαι, make mention of, or AHD: remember.

амо, B: where.

аммоніакъ, m., P: амміакъ.

amoже: ditto.

aмплуа, incl., theatre: an actor’s roles || (same Fr. word, emploi = etym.) || employment, business, post || — ; {modern Fr. translation has this translated as “line”, both in HSD and MAF}.

aмпрыкъ, m., P: толокнянка: somewhat tainted large salted fish.

aмпутаціонный, –ая ое, adj.: (of) amputation* || — || *, amputating || — .

aмпутація, f.: amputation; =, =, =; Lat.

aмулетъ, m.: amulet*; talisman**; preservative; || *, ** || — || *; Ar.; ‘hamilèt, حميلة, baldric {in DAF, himaala(t): حِمْالة, both versions in FCH, root meaning “to carry”; AHD, W9, RAE: Lat.}.

aмуниціа, f.: ammunition*; provisions necessary for an army** || ≅ ** || * || *,**; Lat.

000500 aмуничный, -ая ое, adj.: (of) munitions || — || ammunition (as adj.) || – .

aмуничникъ, m.: depot for aмуниціа.

уриться, make love, attempt to please, to coquet || fam., woo; love one another, play the gallant || to make love, to fondle || acc. constr.: flirt, make love to, woo.

урный, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: B: Cupid’s, love.

уръ, m.: (god of) Love*, Cupid** || *, ** || **, love, amour || *, **.

aмфибіографія: ТС, writing on the life of amphibians.

aмфибіолитъ, m., P: Amphibiolith, Amphibienstein = amphibolite.

419, Friedrich Keim, Sprachschatz: oder französisch-deutsches, alphabetisch geordnetes Handwörterbuch aller französischen Homonymen, Haupt- Bei- Für- Neben- und Zeitwörter…, [Regensburg: Jakob Rußwurm, 1837] , p.419, books.google.com/books?id=z1FbAAAAcAAJ, acc. 20170324.

aмфибіолическій, –ая ое, adj., нпм: amphibiological.

aмфибіологіа, f.: amphibiology* ||*||*||*; Gk.

aмфибіологъ, m., нпм: amphibiologue, amphibiologist.

000510 aмфибія, f.: amphibian* || *, земноводное || amphibia** || *, **; Gk. 2nd: bios.

aмфибрахическій, –ая ое, adj.: * || * || amphibrachic* || * ; ἀμφι + βραχύς (short).

aмфибрахій, m.: amphibrach*|| * || * || * .

aмфивія, f.,R: aмфибія.

aмфисціи, m. pl.: amphiscii*, + var. aмфиски || aмфискіи* || * || — ; σκιά, shadow. Cf. Gr. Schemen, of same root.

Usage can be found in GEO, p. 620, search 114 or < A M PH IS C II >, to be read with the definition of “shadows” on p. 113, also see p. 115, search 621.

aмфитеатральный, нпм: amphitheatral.

aмфитеатръ, m.,∀: amphitheatre; Gk.: θήατρον; prefix + theatre, from v. to see.

000517 aмфора, f., B: amphora; Gk., prefix + ult. pherein, φέρειν, to bear.

 

анаграмма, f.,∀: anagram, Gk.

анаграмматистъ, m.: anagrammatist* || — || * || — .

000520 анаграмматическій, B: anagrammatical..

анаконда, f., нпм: anaconda; (AHD: etym. unexplained, maybe from Dravidian) .

анакреонтическій, –ая ое, adj.: — || — || Anacreontical* || *; name of Gk. poet .

аналавъ, m., нпм: “analavos” of Orthodox nuns.

анализировать: analyze* || *, decomposer (various meanings resolve**) || * || analyze, **; prefix + λϋειν: loosen.

анализисъ, m.: аналитика || analysis* || — || * .

анализъ, m., ≠br: ditto.

аналитика, f.: analysis*; breakdown of a thing into its basic parts || * || *, analytics || * (in Math. & Logic)

аналитикъ, m.: analyst* || * || analyzer || — .

аналитическій, –ая ое, adj.: analytical*, analytic** || *, ** || * || **: but * = ** .

000530 аналогизмъ, m., P: analogism.

аналогически, analogically* || * || * || — .

аналогическій, –ая ое, adj.: analogical*, in proportion to || * || * || * .

аналогій, m.: lectern* || * || * || * ; ἀνά + λέγειν: upon + read, + corruption, mod. Gk.; {also, аналой, a square, inclined table, with icons, upon which the Gospel and other books are placed, freely translated from ТС, p. 57, search 69; Gk., eccl., ТСЖ 13, search 84}.

аналогія, f.: analogy* || *, similtude || * || *, similiarity.

ананасный, –ая ое, adj.∀: pine-apple; P: ан— запахъ: pineapple smell; нпм: —ная растенія: les broméliacées = the bromeliads.

ананасовый, adj., ≠P: see preceding.

ананасъ, m.: pineapple* || * || *, ananas || * ; Indian word, Peru, ananas < (RAE): Port. < Guarani naná .

анапестическій, –ая ое, adj., ≠P: anapestic.

анапестъ, m.,∀: anapest + etym. Gk. + ἀνάπαισος, from ἀναπαίειν hit inopportunely (frapper à contre-temps) .

000540 анархистъ, m.: anarchist* || * || anarch, * || *, enemy of the government (Regierungsfeind).

анархическій, –ая ое, adj.: anarchic* [=] anarchical* || * || anarchial [sic] || *, lawless (gesetzlos).

анархія, f.: anarchy*, state without government || * || * || *, lawlessness.

анасарка, B: anasarca < B: Gk. prefix + sarka < sarx** < twerk– < AHD > Pokorny tuerk-, [not in PkP version, POK; tṷerk̑- ] ‡; in DRL, ker- III., sker – iii. – [idea of] piece of meat**.

Differences in references to Pokorny may be explained as follows: AHD admits that its references may be different; the on-line .pdf version, already distinct from the product in this author’s files, seems to have software-based translations into English, many unsuccessful. As for the item here, it is one of 3 that was not included in the alphabetical order (compared with the original German version [Comparison of 20170321])..

анастомозъ, m., B: anastomosis < B: ; Gk. Prefix “up” + stoma “mouth”, together: outlet.

анатомикъ, m.: anatomist* || * || *, dissector || * .

анатомить, anatomize* [=] dissect || * || * || * .

анатомленіе, n.: dissection of a body* || * || anatomizing, dissection || * .

анатомленный, p., ≠mp: anatomized, dissected.

анатомическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: anatomical

000550 анатомически, нпм: anatomically.

анатомія, f.: anatomy,* dissection of human body|| * || *; theatre of anatomy ||*: dissection and representation.

FOR анатом-, etym.: Gk.: prefix + τέμνειν: to cut

анатомъ, ≠br: анатомикъ.

анафора, f., B: amphora, see 000517.

анахоретъ, m., нпм: anchorite, OxF 1919: Gk anakhōrētēs < ANAkhōreō, retire.

анахронизмъ, m.: anachronism* || * || * || *, confusion of time, miscalculation of time: Gk. ana + chronos.

анаΘема, f.: anathema*, excommunication**, execration || *, **|| .

предать анаΘемѣ: to anathematize*** || *, **, ***; Gk. prefix ana (up) + θέειν [sic], to put.

анбаръ, анбарный, нпм, see: амбаръ, 000445, respectively. Note the not-too-remote similarity to the word “hangar” in form and meaning, especially if we transform б > в, and and a reversal of Muscovite pronunciation usage: в > г.

ангажировать: — || engage*, invite to dance** (pour la danse)|| — || *, ** (aufnehmen [zum Tanz]).

ангелика, f.: — || — ; || angelica || angelica sylvestris.

000560 ангеловидный, –ая ое, adj.: — || — || — || Sl. angelic.

ангелоначальникъ, m., P: архангелъ, archangel.

ангелоподобный, –ая ое, adj.: — || of an angelic figure || — || —.

ангеловъ, –ва, во, individual poss. adj.: d’ange, angelic || angel’s, the angel’s || — || Sl. Angelic.

ангеломудренный, –ая ое, adj., Sl., P: bestowed with the wisdom of angels.

ангеломудрый, –ая ое, adj.Sl., P: ditto.

ангелочекъ, m., P: little angel.

ангелочка, m., P: little angel.

ангелъ, m.: angel*, génie**; patron saint; person having all the qualities; || *, ** || * || * .

анг— великаво совѣта,P: “the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who announces the will of the Eternal [Father] to us”.

анг— хранитель: guardian angel* || * || * || * .

день –a.: — || name day* || — || * .

тихій анг. продетѣлъ, P: (poetical) “It became deadly still.”

ангелъская сладость, f., B: (polypodium vulgare) common polypody; Etym: Gk. having numerous feet; P > папоротникъ (солодковый).

000570 ангелъскій –ая ое, adj.: angelic*, angelical*, of an angel**||*, ** ||*|| *,  angel[-].

анг— ликъ, P: 1) picture of an angel (2) monkhood (monks, collectively).

анг— образъ: ditto.

великій анг— образъ, P: statue or picture of an angel.

анг— соборъ, P: host of angels.

анг— силы: ditto.

ангелъски: angelically* || * || *, like an angel || — .

ангиологія, f.: — || angiology* || * || * ..

ангиотомія, f., P: angiotomy.

англезъ, m.: — || a dance*: anglaise** || *: angloise, {English} country dance, {aka anglais} || *: das Anglaise.

англизированіе, m., P: the act of anglicizing a horse.

англизированный, ≠R: p. part. of next: — || anglicised * || nicked, with a short tail || — .

англизировать: to anglicize, to cut the tail of a horse || to anglicize (a horse)* || to anglicise; to nick (a horse) {The non-capitalization of “anglicize” follows JBD} || * .

англиканскій, ≠bm: Anglican.

англицизмъ m., ≠P: Anglicism.

000580 англійски: говорить по — , B: to speak English.

англійск ая болѣзнь, f.: — || rickets*, rachitis* || * || — .

англійская соль, f., B: Epson salts.

англоманія, f.: — || Anglomania* || — || *, a preference for things English.

англоманъ, m.: Anglomaniac*, admirer to excess of the English || * || — || *, one who has a preference for things English.

анданте, n,. incl., ≠R: andante.

андреева трава =

андреевская вероникa =

андреевъ крестъ = “вероникa (андреевская)”, q.v., P:

veronica (veronica spicata,{includes the speedwells, Gr.: Ehrenpreis}).

аневризма, f., P: aneurism.

аневризматическій, нпм: aneurismal.

аневризмъ, m.,∀: aneurism; Gk. ana: throughout, + euruneien, dilate (AHD version).

000590 анекдотецъ, –тца, m. dim., ∀: анекдотъ, below.

анекдотическій, –ая ое, adj. ≠P: anecdotal.

анекдотъ, m., ∀: anecdote; Gk. not published (given out).

анемометръ, m.: anemometer, ≠R; Gk. anemos, ἄνεμος wind.

анемонъ, m.: anemone, ≠M, Gk. from Ar. . نعمان.

It is impossible to say what meaning R gave to the Ar., LDR gives “blood”, not found in other sources. Most productive was FCH, which under various spellings of the root app. “being comfortable” gives “south wind”, giving a nexus to the Gk. meaning of “wind”, (see previous item), “poppìes” – possibly ties in with “blood”. Then there is a variety of tree, the etym. ties in through “tender leaves”, not blood, it seems. R also gives an expression after the previous Ar. word شقايق النعمان, this latter more correctly matching his Ar. This is anemone in DAF, شقائق النعمان , without his implied double “n”. With the two words reversed, however, and a probable misprint suggesting that the second of these is the plural, FCH gives “poppy”, though FC2, as retranslates into Arabic as the word DAF gave for anemone. The reverse translation for “anemone” in FC2 did not, in any way, tie in with the preceding. AHD gives Gk, with a possible Semitic antecedent.

анёры, pl. m., P: козыри (старшіе): honours (in card game), Übertrumpf.

анзацъ, m.: ∀; 000463, q.v.; Gr. Ansatz(stück): thing appended.

анисный, –ая ое, adj.: ∀; ((made) of) anis.

анисовка, f., ≠br: Аnisettе; Gr. Var.: Anisschälchen.

анисовый, –ая ое, adj.,∀: анисный.

анисовая водка, ≠bm, анисовка.

000600 анисъ, m., ∀: anise (plant: pimpínella anísum); Gk.: ἄνισον.

анитный, -ая ое, , adj., ≠B: {P: > укропъ, ый, –ая ое}, adj. of 000600. P gives, for this adj., under a synonym, the first half of Gr. compound words, Fenchel-, (see анитъ).

анитовый, –ая ое, adj.: ≠R: same as the preceding, see анитъ.

анитъ, m., ∀: fennel or dill: anet || anethe, fenouil || (anethum graveolens*) dill || укропъ, 1.: *. This is translated as “dill”. Anethum foeniculum is fennel, also called, in this dict-ry, in Gr., Dillfenchel; Gk., ἄνηθον.

000604 анкерокъ, -рка, m.,∀; anker‡; P: винный анк.: wine anker.

‡B’s translation, also found in OxF, [p, 33, 1919 ed., p. 43, 1934], where defined as 8½ Imperial gallons of wines or Spirits; in the 4 Russian dictionaries: liquid measure equal to 40 bottles* || * || 3 vedrós, anker**, 7.5 gallons of wine, 7.98 gallons of beer || **; etymology: Dutch, Oxf mentions this, but beyond that, it is unknown. Further sources: In Russia, 8.121 gallons, 36.9 litres: Horace Doursther, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes…, [Brussels: M. Hayez, 1840], books.google.com/books?id=KAibOR651tkC, acc. 20170327.

анкерочек, –чка, m., P: small anker, small barrel.

анкерочный, –ая ое, adj.∀: anker; + B: in ankers.

анк– обpучъ, P: anker hoop.

анкерштокь, m., ≠P: the stock of an anchor. Dutch. {The “stock” component is Old Germanic, and “probably” related to another Gr. word < Lat. tundere. < D7. AHD gives it an Old En. origin, coming from I.-O. steu-, under which all the preceding are confirmed as derivatives in their respective languages.

анкеръ, m., ≠M: anchor (R: anchor of the sea); + P: wine anker (000604).

аннотація, f., B: annotation.

000610 аномалистическый, –ая ое, adj.: ≠br, anomalistic, anomalistical.

годъ, M: anomalistic year. The OxF defnt. is less complicated than ТС’s, (63 [75]).

аномалія, f.: anomaly, ≠R; Gk. neg. ana + homos: ὁμός..

анонимъ, m.: ∀; nameless or unnamed person*, anonymous writer** || * || *, ** || * . Gk. neg. prefix + anoma, (name): ἄνομα.

ансырь, f.: ≠mp: 1 Russian pound: 96 zolotniks < {etym. not given, maybe related to Ru. gorst’ ‘cupped hand, handful’ (SIL), if the handful could be a pound, but no real convincing argument for this. Another possibility: through the change of “c” to “k”, we can relate this to the anker, анкеръ, a measure, which, if it were a weight, would be like a peso, also a weight, but simultaneously, a monetary unit in some Sp.-speaking countries.}

анта, f., P: тапиръ, tapir (accent not marked).

антаблементь, m., ≠br: entablature. Lat.: tabula.

антагонизмъ, m., нпм: antagonism.

антагонистъ, m.: ≠R, antagonist; + ⅔P: adversary, opponent; Widersacher.

анталъ, m.: ≠P, liquid measure equal to 60 bottles*; antal, * < ; antal, Hungarian origin.

антальный, –ая ое, adj.: ≠P, (of an) antal(-).

000620 антартическій, –ая ое, (of an) antal, adj.: ≠R: antarctic; + P: south(ern), southerly, südlich.

антеки, m. pl.: ≠mp, antœci, antæcii (transl. by JBD); Gk., anti + v. to dwell.

{Our etym. guess: Pokorny : u̯es-1 (*su̯es-), reminiscent of Sp. hogar, (< focus, RAE > AHD > centre of the home); Gr. hocken, but these are not related, very probably euk-, (but notice k ↔ s ↔ t ↔ d possibility). The truth is the root weik- (AHD), in DRL, Gk. woikos became oikos, dwelling, house, (in “eceonomy”), a derivation with k > s is “diocese”. }

антидорный, adj., нпм: adj. of next entry (not included in word count).

антидоръ, m., ≠R: antidoron, consecrated* bread (Gk: Ἀντίδωρον means “instead of gifts”; {better definition here of δωρον might be “offering”}.

антидотъ, m.,∀; antidote; + P: противоядіе, Lat., antiquus.

антикамера, f., B: antechamber. {R ignores this derivative under камера, q.v., p. 373 [463]}.

антиква, f.,∀; roman type in printing, e. g., Times New Roman.

антикварій, m.,∀: antiquary, + P: archaeologist, classical scholar[?]; seller of antiquities.

антикварія, f., B: antiquarianism.

антикварство, f., нпм: antiquariat, knowledge of antiques.

антикъ, m.∀: antique, antiquity; Lat., antiquus.

000630 антилопа, f., P: сайгa.

антиминсъ, m.∀: corporal, = comunion cloth + P: image of the entombment of Christ (on the altar); modern Gk.: Gk anti, + Latin mensa, table.

антимонархическій, adj., B: antimonarchical.

антимоніальный, –ая ое, adj.: ≠P: antimonial.

антимоній, m., ≠mp: antimony {next version preferred}.

антимонія, f.,∀: antimony, + нпм, P: сурьма; {=, 21st C. form} Lat.; {AHD, Lat., perhaps from Ar., perhaps from Gk.} .

антипасха, m., ≠br: Low Sunday, Fr. Quasimodo, Gr. Antipasch.

антипатическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: antipathetic.

антипатія, f.,∀: antipathy, aversion {Widerwille, Abneigung} Gk. anti + pathos, affection.

антипатръ, f., B: Antipater, {general of Alexander (the Great)}.

000640 антиподы, m. pl., ∀: antipodes, Gegenfüßler; Gk. anti + pus {AHD: pous}, odos, foot, erroneous for “podos”: ποδοσ.

антискій, m. pl., нпм: антеки?, les antisciens: antiscii, from Royal Dictionary, English and French and French and English, books.google.com/books?id=ztQ9AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA52; {persons living at (+x1º,x2º), yº, such that x is one of two latitudes, one north, the other south of the equator, and y is a single longitude, such that at 1200 local time, their shadows fall in opposite directions.}

антистрофа, f., B: antistrophe. Gk.

антитеза, f:, ∀: antithesis, Gk. anti + títheemi, I put.

антитезисъ, m., ditto.

антитезный, –ая ое, adj., ≠P: antithetical.

антитезъ, m., P: антитеза.

антифлогистическій, B: antiphlogistic. Item not included in word count.

антифонь, m.∀: antiphon, antiphony, + B: anthem; antiphonary; Gk.

антифразисъ, m., ≠pr: antiphrasis; Gk., counter-truth.

антихристъ, m.: ≠R: antichrist + P: opponent of Christian teaching.

000650 античный, –ая ое, adj.: ≠R: antique, antiquarian.

антлія, m., ≠mp: B: pump, + R: water pump, антлія.

а— пневматическая: pneumatic pump; Gk., bilge..

антологическій, –ая ое, adj.∀: anthological.

антологія, f:, ∀: anthology; Gr. Blumenlese†; Gk. andos (flower), legein, choose.

антоновъ огонь, m.: — || gangrene* || St. Anthony’s fire, erysipelas, rose;* || гангрена.

антрактъ, m., ≠R: the time between the acts of a play, interact, interlude.

антрацитъ, m., нпм: anthracite; Gk: anthrax, carbon.

антресолей, антресоли, f., pl., P: see next.

антресоль, f., ∀: entresol, apartment between two floors; Fr. {BIL, нпм give only the 2nd plural form of the preceding entry.}

антропологія, f.: ≠R: anthropology; Gk.

000660 антропотомія, f., ≠br: anthropometry; Gk.

антрша, f, ⊂G: caper, cross caper (in dancing), entrechat; < Fr. : entrecha (se) AHD, q.v.

анфилада, Archt., m., ≠br: row of rooms*; P: enfilade: *; {possibly, a row of buildings, the military definition is not given, see next entry.}

анфилированіе, m., Mil., нпм: enfilade, action of enfilading.

анфилировать, Mil., нпм: to enfilade.

анӨологіонъ, m., нпм: anthologist.

анӨраксъ, m: carbuncle† = (R: precious stone of a fiery-red colour, AHD: a deep red garnet); нпм: ruby; B: anthrax; P: Bibl.: > бирюза, Sl.,: turquoise. Gk: burning carbon: ἄνθραξ.

анчоусный, –ая ое, adj., ≠P:; anchovy.

анчоусъ, m., ∀: anchovies; Sp. anchova, {AHD: perhaps from Basque, anchu}.

аншефъ, m, нпм: генерал —, general-in-chief; Fr. en chef. {Term replaced by “general of artillery”, — cavalry, or — infantry; under Peter I, (as now – PKM), the title was the equivalent of “supreme commander” – TC}.

000670 аншпугъ, m:, ∀: hand-spike; (P: transl. as lever); En., mar.: hand-spike.

анъ m., ≠br: and, on the contrary || but, e.g.: Анъ въ дѣлѣ вышелъ оборотъ / совсѣмъне тотъ. (Крыловъ): but the thing took a completely different turn; nevertheless, it came out quite differently. Ан в деле вышел оборот / совсем не тот, modernized.

анютины глазки, B: (viola tricolor), heart’s ease, pansy.

апанеръ, adv., B: apeek (AHD: apeak < apike†); {Dutch: Op-en-neer “up and down”, dicipedia.info/dic-ru-ru-Vasmer-term-277.htm, acc. 20170401}.

подвертѣться къ апанёру, to heave {the anchor} short.

апатія, f., нпм: apathy.

аорта, f., P: aorta > артерія (начальная).

апеллянтъ, m., P: appellant; Lat. < pel-.

000677 апелляторъ, m., P: appellee.

апелляціонный, –ая ое, adj., P: ап— отвѣтчикъ: 000677; ап—ное дѣло: appeal documents.

производить дѣло апелляціоннымъ порядкомъ: {let something take the course of an appeal, to bring to an appeal, to appeal}.

апелляція, m., P: appeal {legal}; право на апелляцію: the right of appeal.

000680 апельсинный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: orange {referring to the fruit}.

апельсиновый, –ая ое, adj., ≠br: orange {referring to the fruit}.

ап— дерево: orange tree; {penult. adj. in R, supra in нпм, both in P, ≠B}.

апельсинчикъ, m., B: small orange.

апельсинъ, m.,∀: the sweet orange; Dutch (BIL) < Gr. < Gr. + Lat. {literally, Chinese apple}.

Expressions: нпм: Онъ въ этомъ столко же знаетъ толку, сколко свиньявъ апельсинахъ: il s’y entend comme à ramer de choux.P: свиня не знаетъ вкус въ апельсинахъ: (das Schwein findet nicht Geschmack am Apfelsinen {literally: the pig acquires/(will acquire) no taste for oranges); was soll der Kuh Muskate.

‡ One knows as much about that as a pig about oranges, i.e. nothing {this writer’s free translation, based on: phraseology.academic.ru/11252/Как_свинья_в_апельсинах, given as a fam. form, acc. 20170401}.

апетитный, –ая ое, adj., P: appetitive; Lat. ad + petere, to seek.

апетитъ, m., P: appetite.

000686 апликатура, f., P: fingering (music); Lat.: ad + plicare, fold together, cf. 000732.

аплодированіе, n., P: applause, clapping; Lat.: ad + plaudere, clap.

аплодировка, f., P: applause, clapping.

000689 аплодировать, ⊂G: applaud*|| *, clap; cf. 000735.

000690 аплодисементъ, m., P: applause, clapping;

шумный апл–.: thunderous applause.

аподипны, ТС: Chant sung by Gk. clergy after supper. Gk., p. 73, [85], as next.

апокопа, ТС: apocope. Gk. Interesting!, A Russian palindrome!

апогей, m., ≠br: apogee (cf. following) .

апогея, m., ≠mp: apogee (cf. preceding); Gk. apo (far) + ge, earth.

апокалипсисъ, m.∀: {Book of the} Apocalypse; {Book of } Revelation; Gk. apo + kaluptein (obscure), giving the trans. of de (from or of) for apo, while AHD gives “reversal”.

апокалипсическій, –ая ое, adj., ∀: apocalyptical, apocalyptic, cf. following.

апокалиптическій, ая ое, adj., ≠mp: (same as above) .

апокрифическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: apocryphal.

P: ап—ія книги: the apocryphal books, the Apocrypha.

апокрифъ, m.,∀: apocrypha; R: an apocryphal book (of the Bible); no specification of Bible in нпм, probably meant to be implicit in P, on the basis of his previous entry..

аполлонъ бабочка (парнаска), P: Parnassus s. heliconus apollo, q.v.; der Alpenfalter, Apollo, Hauslaubschmetterling.

000700 апологистъ, m.∀: apologist, + B: apologizer.

апологическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: apologetic, apologetical.

апологія: f.,∀: apology; + writing in defense {P: of s.o., s.t.}; + нпм: justification.

апологъ, m.,∀: apologue, moral fable.

апоплексическій, B: apoplectic.

апоплексія, f. ∀: apoplexy; Gk. intensive apo + plessein, strike.

апоплектикъ, m. ∀: a person seized with apoplexy.

апоплектическій, –ая ое, adj., ≠B: apoplectic.

апортъ, m., нпм: a type of apple.

This variety of apple (at least) once obtained a prize at an exhibition in Paris. [http://yard.hozvo.ru/aport_i_drugie_krupnoplodnye_sorta_yablok-84858]; It was extra-large, grown in Kazakhstan, and supplied to the Kremlin: Central Asia in Art: From Soviet Orientalism to the New Republics, Aliya Abykayeva-Tiesenhausen I.B.Tauris, 2016 London; books.google.com/books?id=n4aqDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT28. Both of the preceding web-pages accessed 20170407.

апостёма, f., R: aposteme, apostume.

000710 апостилъ, m., ≠mp: B: note / R: Short note on an écrit / apostil, apostille < DFA > short marginal note {not in AHD} R: Fr. aposter ; OxF, p. 38, ’19: of dubious origin.

апостолъ, m. ∀: apostle*, disciple of Christ***, {New Testament’s} Acts of the Apostles** || *, ** and the Epistles**** || *, Epistle || *, **, ***, **** .

апостольникъ, m., ≠B: wimple, < JBD; guimpe.

апостольски, ≠P.: apostolically.

апостольскій, –ая, ое, adj. ∀: apostolical; ап—кая посланія: Epistles.

апостольство, m. ∀: apostolate, apostleship; Gk., sellein {misprint for stellein}: send

апострофический, B: apostrophic.

апострофъ, m. ∀: {the symbol}: ‘ (apostrophe) *, rhetorical device by which a speaker interrupts himself to address someone** || * || * || *: {Modern Fr. & f. Mod. Gr. ≠ **, etym. for two meanings slightly different, but reduce to Gk:, strefein (turn), “τ” missing in R.}

апофегма, f., P: apothegm, ароthem, apophthegm.

апофтегма, R: ditto; Gk. I speak, cf. AHD for extended etym.

000720 апофѳегма, ≠mp, ditto.

апофѳегматическій, –ая ое, adj.: ≠pr: apothegmatic, apothegmatical.

аппаратъ, m., ≠br: apparatus; P: риборъ, снарядъ.

аппаратчикъ, ТС: not the modern “apparatchik”, but a supervisory employee at a brandy distillery, responsible for all apparatus, the temperature, the correct amount of water in the vats, etc. Lat., p. 76 [88].

аппартаментъ, ТС: apartment; Fr.

аппелянтка, f., нпм, appellant, appellor.

000725 аппеляціонный, –ая ое, нпм, see 000728.

000726 аппеляція, нпм, see 000729: взять аппеляцію: to lodge an appeal, se pourvoir en cassation.

аппеллянтъ, m., ≠P: appellant, appellor (JBD transl.)

аппелляторъ, m., ≠mp, ditto.

000728 аппелляціонный, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: (of) appeal, appellatory, нпм 000725

R: аппелляціонные суды: des cours d’appel.

000729 аппелляція, f., ≠mp: appeal, appellancy, нпм 000726

000730 аппетитно, ≠P, adv., with appetite.

аппетитный, –ая ое, adj.: ≠P: appetible, relishing < JBD transl. {appetitive?}, appetizing.

аппетитъ, m. ≠P: appetite, + R: “the need to eat”; + B: relish.

000733 аппликатура: 000686, ≠P: R: manner of placing fingers on a musical instrument. нпм: fingering on the high keys (etc.). Этотъ пассажъ слѣдуегъ играть на апликатурѣ: This passage must be played on the high keys. (touches).

апплике, n. incl., нпм: plaqué [sic, accent marked], appliqué ? .

000735 апплодировать, нпм: 000689, Акгёру этому ного апплодировали: That actor brought down the house.

апподжіатура: f., ≠mp: P: предудареніе: appogiatura.

априкосовый, adj., B: apricot (P.: абр…, q.v.)

априкосный, P: абр…, q.v. (adj., apricot) .

априкосъ, m., ⊂G; (B: prunus armeniaca) apricot; (P.: абр…, q.v.) .

000740 априлій: m., нпм: апрѣль; cf. the following:

априллій: m., ≠mp Sl.,: April..

апробація, f., ≠R: approbation, sanction.

апробованный, B: approved.

апробовать: ≠pr, to approve, to approve of, to consider fitting; JBD, + > to like.

апроши: f., pl., mil. ∀: approaches. communication trench.

HDS allows a singular. AHD emphasizes protection of besieging troops, OxF p. 40, ’19, emphasizes that the trenches allow the approach of the besiegers, W9 ignores the mil. definition.

апрѣль: m. ∀: April.

нпм: Перваго, втораго апрѣля: on the first, second of April; [cf. второе мая, the first of May]; въ апрѣлѣ: in April; обмануть въ первое апрѣля, play an April Fool’s Day joke (All Fool’s Day).

апрѣльскій, –ая ое, adj., ∀: April.

апсель: m.,f., ≠P: mizen stay-sail (B has this as f., ⊂fr as m.) Dutch aapzeil

апсиды: m., (f.,B), ≠pr: apsides. Cf. абсиды.

000750 аптека, f., ∀: apothecary’s shop, drug store, pharmacy. Gk. apo + theke < place where to store something, from tithenai, to put {Related words: Russian “duma”, Irish “Dail”, theme, thesis}.

аптекаревъ, ва, во, ind. pers. adj.< ≠mp: apothecary’s

аптекарскій, ая ое, com. pers. adj.,∀: (of an) apothecary(‘s); B: apothecaries’;

садъ < R: le jardin des plantes. This translation is wrong. It could refer to any garden containing medicinal plants, but such evidence was not found. It refers to either of the botanical gardens in Moscow or St. Petersburg. Both were instituted by decree of Peter the Great: the former in 1706, which was owned by the Apothecary Board, from whence the name, similar even now; the latter, Moscow State University’s Apothecary Garden, cf. THE APOTHECARIES’ GARDEN at hortus.ru/about-us. Based on the publication of most of the dictionaries at St. Petersburg, it may have meant the one based on “Apothecary Island”, which is now called Komarov Botanical Institute. See: .saint-petersburg.com/parks/botanical-garden/, or, .lonelyplanet.com/russia/st-petersburg/attractions/botanical-gardens/a/poi-sig/374303/1336042, or, if possible, “Komarov Botanical Institute”, in Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections, Cathy Giangrande, Intro. by John Julius Norwich, [Boston: Bunker Hill Publishing, Inc, 2003], p. 8, books.google.com/books?id=3G9uNdE-H84C&pg=PA8}.

ская наука: pharmaceutics.

br: — счёгъ: druggist’s bill; fig.: long or exorbitant bill

аптекарша, f.,∀: druggist’s (chemist’s) wife

аптекаръ, m.,∀: apothecary, druggist, chemist

аптечка, f., dim. ≠M: small apothecary’s shop, drug store, pharmacy; a medicine chest < JBD; domestic medicine chest {cabinet}

аптечный, ая ое, adj. ≠P: of an apothecary’s shop

ара, ara, B: macaw

арабскій, –ая ое, adj. ≠mp: R: of Arabia, Arabian*; B: Arab, *, Arabic

ская живопись, R: арабескъ, q.v.

языкъ, B: the Arabic {language}; ар—ая горчица: постѣнка, P: arabis thaliana, die Türkenkresse. p. 160 [558]. Variously identified elsewhere, e.g., Glechoma hederacea, in the mint family, ic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dic_synonims/234316/постенка, or Arabis: “rock cress”, genus of flowering plants, within the family Brassicaceae, John Parkinson, Theatrum Botanicum: The Theater of Plants : Or, An Herball of Large Extent …, accessed 20170405.

арабескъ, m., ∀: arabesque

000760 арабка, m., R: a negress (see note under арапка}

арабъ, m., ≠mp: нпм: un nègre; B: an Arab, an Arabian {proper noun included on the basis of variant meanings given to “Arab” in the past.} Ar., عرب, Arab.

арава, f., pop., ∀: crowd, multitude, great number; арава дѣтей: eine Hetze Kinder: a mob of children, Tk: qalaba: قلبة, .

аравистый, adj. ≠pr: numerous. {uncommon < нпм}.

аpаковый, –ая ое, adj.: ≠P: (of) arack < JBD, arrack; Ar. ’araq, عرق, sweat. AHD and OxF [p. 45, ‘19] give “juice”, but the root word is indeed “sweat”, cf. DAF, or ’ariq, to sweat, cf. LDR

аpакъ, m.,∀: arrack

аранцы, –цсвъ, m. pl, craggy rocks* in Siberia** || * (**) || steep rocks, cliffs || rocky mountains (**). Possibly refers to a specific region of lesser importance.

аранжировать, ≠M: arrange.

арапка, f.: — || negresse || As defined by JBD: a Negress‡, a black woman. || = JBD + Moor {unless otherwise noted, etym. same as for арабъ. As translated in the sources, derivations apply to any original inhabitants of the African continent, including those of Arab blood.}

The term English term “Negro” and its German equivalent has become offensive. The word is merely given as in the original, and it is believed that the capitalization of the term gives a dignity that the spoken word is incapable of imparting. The term Negress, of this footnote, is also considered offensive to women’s groups. Again, we merely reflect the translation of the time. On the other hand, for languages that have masculine, feminine, and sometimes neuter nouns and adjectives, naming the feminine counterpart of a male is still considered normal, inclusive language, in Spanish, for example, inclusion means that the feminine must be named together with the masculine, and not that some genderless substitute is created – though social media often apply an impossible to pronounce termination reminiscent of Portuguese words, “ao”. Using the neuter form in German would cause everyone to be referred to in the diminutive — an insult to all adults, and belittling to older minors.

арапникъ, m.,∀: lunging whip; а coach-whip, a horse~whip; hunting whip; Pol.: herapnik, from harap: cry of the hunter to spur prey to the dogs (pour enlever aux chiens la proie), from Gr. Herab!, Down!

000770 арапничекъ, m., dim. R: a small whip (as defined above).

арапчеиокъ, m., нпм: a young Negro.

арапъ, m.: — || un nègre || а negro, a black man || a Moor; see note at арапка.

арба, f., ∀: two-wheeled* wagon in use {used!} in central Russia || wagon, cart* || *, a tilted cart || * Wagen (carriage, cart) used in Astrakhan and the Crimea; Tk. ’araba: < عربه>, {p. 45, DTF}.

арбузецъ, эца, m., dim., ≠B: a small watermelon.

арбузище, m., aug., P: a large watermelon.

арбузный ая ое, adj., ≠M: watermelon.

арбузъ, m., ∀.: watermelon; Arbuse (cucurbita cítrullus); (Pers. kherbouzé, < خربزه>, but tarbuz, watermelon, < تربز>, in DPE, p. 42, or < خربزه >, kharbuza, p. 70) .

арга, f., ≠mp: B: a machine for drawing gold wire, + R: use(d) for silver wire, (too). Fr., argue.

аргали, incl., ≠R: — || argali*, sheep || *, wild sheep || баранъ (степной) *, (ovis argalis) wild ram, wild sheep, * ; Mongolian argali: mountain goat.

000780 аргамакъ, m.: wild horse of the Cabardie* || race-horse (*) || а wild horse (in Cabarda) || der Klepper: nag, hack, jade (from the Kabardei); Tk. ouroughmak, < ارغماڧ >, most similar words found in DTF (p. 925): vourmaq, horse, < ارماڧ >, ermak, < ارماك >.

аргусъ, ≠rp: argus {being uncapitalized, the meaning is suspected as being in the sense of “guardian”; etym. given as Tatar in ТС, *; отличается бкстротою бѣга (p. 78}.

арековый орѣхъ, B: the areca nut.

аренда, m., ∀: R: lease*, {perhaps restricted to farming}; farming lease**; quit-rent, payment in kind; the leasing for a rent, usually for payment in kind; rent, revenue* ; нпм: *, **; farm given for temporary possession; отдать иа аренду* {+P} or въ арендное содержаніе: to farm out, to rent {* usually for payment in kind, says R, who only gives this expression}, взять на ареиду {+P} or арендное, содержаніе: to {pay} rent {for the use of} a farm; B: lease, farm, rent; P: Gr.: die Arrende, lease(hold); Swedish: arrende; {Lat.: rendita, reddita, related to En. “rent”, Gr. Renten, Sp. arrendar. An interesting aside: the German term, according to Duden, comes from Russian; duden.de/rechtschreibung/Arrende}.

арендаторскій, –ая ое, adj. ≠M: of an арендаторъ; lessee’s, farmer’s.

арендаторша, f., R, tenant-farmer (woman); tenant-farmer’s wife.

арендаторъ, m.,∀, R: arrendateur, tenant-farmer, censier, amodiateur; нпм: farmer of an аренда; B: lessee, farmer, renter, tenant; P: Arrendator, leaseholder.

арендный, –ая ое, adj. ≠mp: leasehold; (see аренда for expressions).

арендованіе, n.,∀: leasing, farming out, renting {“out” added for clarification}.

000789 арендовать, ∀: to lease, farm {out}, rent..

000790 ареометръ, m.,∀: aereometer (W9, ≠AHD); Gk, ἀραιὸϛ, rare + métron, measure. AHD: air < aer, breath (+ metron), with the root of air < I.-O. we-, perhaps!

ареопагитъ, m. ≠P: areopagite.

ареопагъ, m. ≠P: Areopagus (B, no cap.), Gk: areiopagos < ares (Mars) + pagos, bourg, (borough), no AHD etym.; W9: Areios pagos from same!, hill of Ares.

арестантка, f., R: a female under arrest, a female prisoner.

арестантская m. & adj. ≠P: нпм: prison; lock-up house, guard~house*; B: detention room, guardhouse {lock-up house}.

арестантскій, –ая ое, adj., ∀: of a person under arrest. ар—ая рота: convict company, convict battalion, cf. ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/арестантская_рота, accessed 20170409.

арестантъ, m.,∀: a person under arrest, a prisoner.

арестованіе, n.,∀: B: arresting, arrestation, seizing, sequestration, + embargo {e.g., P: of a ship}.

арестованный, p.,∀: arrested, sequestrated.

R: ар—ное имѣніе, confiscated good {item].

арестователь: m., B: arrester, sequestrator.

000800 арестовать, ∀: to arrest, to put under arrest, to seize, to sequestrate {sequester}

арестуемый, adj., B: arrestable, sequestrable.

арестъ, m., ∀: arrest, seizure, sequestration.

P: взятіе подъ арестомъ: арестованіе, q.v.

нпм: вынустить изъ —подъ арестъ: free from arrest.

нпм: домашній арестъ: house arrest (les arrêts dans la chambre).

mp: наложить арестъ: to seize, to sequestrate {sequester}.

нпм: наложить арестъ на имѣніе: to put goods under embargo, to sequester.

br: находиться подъ арестомъ: to be under arrest.

P: плата за содержаніе подъ арестомъ: bounty Haftgeld.

br: посадить подъ арестъ: to place under arrest, to arrest.

R: сидѣть подъ арестомъ: to be under arrest; cf.: сидѣть подъ арестомъ: to be under arrest.

нпм: снать съ имѣнія арестъ: décharger les biens d’une séquestre.

P: содержать подъ арестомъ: to keep under arrest.

P: содержаніе подъ арестомъ: арестъ, q.v.

P: содержащійся подъ арестомъ: person arrested.

аржанецъ, ица, m. нпм: phléole; P: ржанецъ, q.v.: (p. 267) timothy (grass): phleum pratense. {We find the word “arjaan” both in Persian and Ar. related to botany, the Ar. being the more relevant, e.g. , A species of wild olive common in Morocco. I?jdn, (v. n. 4 of lo?^) Feeding a camel on hay in the stable. Arajdn dictionarypersia00johnuoft.pdf Dictionary, Persian, Arabic and English, Francis Johnson, [London: Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1852], p. 56. As this dictionary does not use the Ar. format of entries by roots, a check in FCH arguably gives purple, or red-purple under a-r-j; while under r-j-n, there is a tie-in with the aforementioned camel and hay in the stable – to be kept in a stable. The possibility of the ‘ayn + r + j was considered, under which, with the “n” suffix, palm leaves were mentioned, an idea somewhat further from what was sought.

арженецъ, -ица, P: same as above.

аристократически, ≠P: aristocratically, in the manner of an aristocrat.

аристократическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: aristocratic, aristocratical.

аристократія, f. ≠B: aristocracy, nobility.

аристократъ, f.,∀: aristocrat { + R: advocate of artistocracy} Gk.

ариѳметика, f.,∀: arithmetic. Gk. arithmos, number.

000810 ариѳметикъ, m. ∀: arithmetician

ариѳметически, ≠P: arithmetically.

ариѳметическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: arithmetical.

аріергардный, –ая ое, adj., B: rear, in the rear; {Fr.: arrière-guarde, < rear guard < arrear < ad + retro + guard < Old Fr., garder / Gr. warten; En. ward < Gr. warta (cf. RAE guarda)} .

000814 аріергардъ, m., ≠mr: B: rearguard, rear; Nachhut, Nachtrab,† Hintertreffen.

арійка, f., dim., R: ariette, arietta.

арія, f.,∀: (aria, air)*, arietta**|| *, ** || *, **, tune || * ; It. aria < Gk. ἀήρ @ 790.

арка, f.,∀: arch; + нпм: archway, vault (archt.); + B: arc, bow.

P: галлера изъ арокъ, аркада, q.v.

аркада, f., ∀: arcade, archway.

аркада, m., нпм: species of apple, vniispk.ru/apple.php?key=26, accessed 20170411; etym., perhaps Arcadia, or fancy name somehow associated with an arcade.

00820 арканить, catch with a running-knot {noose}, tie with a rope; to lasso, to rope with a running noose. {P: for example, a horse of the steppes}.

арканчикъ: m., dim., R: rope.

аркань, m.,∀: rope || rope with a running-knot || lasso, rope with a running noose. || lariat, lasso (to catch, e.g. the horse of the steppes, or humans, as do the Cossacks); Tk. (Tatar: ТС).; orghan: < اورغان >, R: rope; DTF, 241: thick rope.

арлекинскій, –ая ое, adj. ≠M: harlequin’s.

арлекинство, n., ∀: harlequinade.

арлекинствовать, ≠R: to play the harlequin.

арлекинъ, m.,∀: harlequin; It., but AHD gives Old Fr. from Old En., Herla cyning, King Herla, OxF p. 376, ’19 gives Fr. from It., stating dubious etym.; D7 goes back to maisnie Hellequin, wild, merry host of devils, of uncertain origin Wo?; predates Herla cyning and the devil’s host with Harilo (leader of the dead); RAE states that Hellequin (the etym.) is the name of a devil.

армада, f., P: armada; {Sp. from Lat.} .

армадиллъ, f., нпм: armadillo, броненосець.

армата, f., R: type of ancient cannon.

000830 арматорскій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: privateer’s; P: арм—ое судно: privateer, corsair.

арматоръ, m.,∀: Privateer , the owner of a privateer.

арматура, f.,∀: armature*, arms, military trophy** || *, **, metal plate on shako; framework (construction)*** {maybe too modern} || *, armour; cramps || *, *** ..

армеецъ, m., ≠R: а regular, a soldier in the army.

армейски, m., ≠mp: arny-like, militarily; according to the principles of the army.

армейскій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: army, army’s, military.

армейщина, f.,∀: army pop.*, said derisively || (ironic) officers or soldiers, || *: army, military service. || армеецъ.

армиляный, ≠pr: armillary, in армиляная сфера.

армія, f.,∀: army; армія осадная: army of siege.

армудъ,: m.,∀: quince tree (pyrus cídonía), quince (fruit); Tk.: < آرمود >, armood: pear.

000840 армяжный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: of camel’s hair, camlet, camel-hair.

армякъ, m.,∀: camelot [camlet] made of camel skin*-, gipe, clothing made of camel skin in the manner of a dressing gown; thick woollen fabric for powder bags || *; smock; serge powder bags || camel’s hair camlet; a coachman’s frock, a tunic. || type of camlet; camel-hair dressing gown.

армянскій камень, ≠mr: Armenian stone, bice; P: лазурикъ: lapis lazuli, Lazurstein, Blaustein; enciclopedia_universal.esacademic.com/59310/Lapislázuli, accessed 20170411.

армянскій красный болюсъ, B: bole armoniac, {Armenian bole}.

армячина: ≠M: camel-hair camlet; a type of camlet. {from 000840 to here, etym. R: армякъ < Armenia.}.

арнаутка, f., ≠R: — || hard wheat* || Arnaoot, * || a type of wheat (in S.Russia {Ukraine?; ТС defines this as a tall sort of wheat, gives no etym., similarity to Gk: αἴρινος, Of ryegrass, Latvian: aĩrenes: ryegrass (these 2 from PkP, possibly related to ear, in sense of spike of plants, or a similar visual idea in esera, fishbone, awn, the latter being given, with “ear”, as a derivative of the I.-O. ak- (AHD), but better, ĕrina, from which comes Ukr.: jaryná, spring corn; jarīna in the Orbanići dialect of Serbo-Croation, one meaning is “late crop”, applicable to wheat. (Etym. of esera and ĕrina from SIL) One cannot help but notice a similarity of ĕrinato Sp. harina, “flour”. Ĕrina is in some ways unsatisfactory, because the primary idea is spring, and the derivatives have as their first-shown idea, “wool”. Glasweizen

арнаутъ: m., arnaoot, cf . арнаутка. Spelling is ”arnoot” in Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn, A Memoir on the Commerce and Navigation of the Black Sea: And the Trade and Maritime Geography of Turkey and Egypt. In 2 V, Volumen 1, [Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1819], books.google.com/books?id=xGs7AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA246, accessed 20170411.

аромалитъ, m., P: Aromalith, Würzstein.

ароматить, m., P: Aromatit, Myrrhenstein, Gewürzstein. Klaus K. E. Neuendorf, et. al., Glossary of Geology, 5th ed., Alexandria Virginia: Springer Science & Business Media, 2005. books.google.com/books?id=yD79FqfECCYC&pg=PA37, accessed 20170412.

ароматить,∀: to aromatize, to scent, to perfume.

000850 ароматическій, –ая ое, adj.∀: aromatic, aromatical, fragrant.

ароматникъ, m.,∀: seller of fragrances or aromatic drugs || merchant in fragrances || perfumer || dealer in fragrances.

ароматница, f.,∀: scent-bottle {vial or flask for perfume}.

ароматный, ая ое, adj. ≠M: ароматическій.

B: ароматное дерево: Rose of Jericho (anastatíca hierochuntíca).

ароматствовать, B: to be aromatic, to smell well {to smell good}.

ароматчикъ, m., P: ароматникъ.

ароматъ, m.,∀: aromatic, aroma, perfume, scent. Gk. Pleasant scent (AHD, PSI: aromatic plant).

ароматы, pl., P: Aromatika; натирать ароматами, P: ароматить.

ароникъ, m., нпм: gouet, arum; Gk. aron.

аронія, f.,∀: (mespílus germanica) medlar {tree, or its fruit}; кизиль; Gk. airoonia.

аронникъ, f., P: ароникъ; аронник водяной: клещинецъ (arum maculatum).

000860 аронова борода, f., ≠mr: (asarum europaeum) asarabacca., аронникъ.

арорутъ, m., P: крахмальный порошокъ (p. 272): Bodenmehl (ms3, 371): farina (in this case), from roots; Etym.: arrowroot, a root used in absorbing arrowhead poisons.

арпеджіо, n., incl., ≠pr: arpeggio (It.).

арпигментъ, m., P: мышьякъ (жёлтый) (324, op. cit.): > @ 000065.

арріергардъ, m., нпм: 000814, q.v.

арсель, m., B: orchella, archil; Old Fr. orchel from It. orcello, dubious etym. (OxF, 42, ‘19).

арсеналъ, m.,∀: arsenal.

арсеналъный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: arsenal.

арсеникъ, m., B: arsenic.

артачиться, ≠br: P: ртачиться: (of horses): to remain standing, to not leave (its/their) place; нпм: (of horses): to be restive, disobedient. (search for p. 669, marked as p. 272 in P; not in ТС. If k >ch, and minus “b”, Tk. bertek (as pronounced in Fr., or app. bearteck, meaning “ambling horse” poorly approximates the required Ru., DTF p. 343.[379].

000870 артель, f.,∀: chambrée {barracked soldiers}*, community of people occupying the same profession || association of artisans with a common business; community, * || gang, squad, crew, company, mess. || Artel, community (of workers, artisans, lower military ranks, etc., which live together at eat at a common table {e.g. mess-hall, hence, a possible translation, mess (in the preceding sense)}, Tk: ortaa, < اورتا >, {< translates as middle, centre, and milieu, DTF 239; it would seem probable that the root is Gk. artos, bread, for the idea of a common table.}.

артельный, ая ое, adj.,∀: gang, squad, crew, company, mess; {collective, communal}.

артельщикъ, m.,∀: member of an артель; + нпм: commissionaire of the stock exchange.

артельщина, f. ,∀: property of an артель*, occupation of an * || assets of an * || the property of a gang or squad || everything which belongs to an * .

артельщичій, adj., нпм: артельный {?}.

артеріальный, –ая ое, adj., P: arterial, e.g. арт—ая кровь: arterial blood.

артерійный, –ая ое, adj.: P: arterial, (ditto).

артерія, f.,∀: artery; Gk. (artery) > αρτηρία ἀέρα τηρεῖν (aéra tēreîn, “containing air”) ἀρτηρίη (ἀρτηρία).

начальная артерія, P: aorta..

артикулъ, m.,∀: military regulation (not here, but assuming next headword || article* || article, regulation. || *, point.

артикулъ*, m., нпм: артикулъ || * военный: military regulation**; * метать: articulate hence, do exercise || — || (Mil.) drill regulation; военный арт—, military code, **, Militärustav; Etym: Lat. articulus < artus, member; (joint, in AHD).

000880 артикуляція, f., ≠mp>: articulation {of bones}.

артиллеристъ*, m., ≠mp: artillerist, artilleryman, gunner.

артиллерійскій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: artillery, ordnance, {e.g., P: арт— паркъ}.

артиллерія, f.,∀: artillery, ordnance, guns. R: арт— осадная: siege artillery.

P: полевая арт—: field artillery; учиться арт—: to study artillery skills.

артистка, f.,∀: artist (female).

артистъ, m.,∀: artist.

артишоковый, –ая ое, adj.,∀: artichoke.

артишокоголовыя растенія, P: cynareae Distelgewächse, — blütler; Thistle, thistle plants, Reference: thistle books.google.com/books?id=st0sAAAAYAAJ&dq=Distelgew%C3%A4chse&source=gbs_navlinks_s; Accessed 20170413.

артишокъ, m.,∀: artichoke; Ar. ardhy chauk, < اردىى شوك >, {literally, earth-thorn or spike, but:} AHD: N. It. Dialect from Old Sp. from Ar. al-kharshūf, < الخرشوفة >, artichoke.

The first suggestion, the thorn-spike-barb idea of this thistle-like plant is good, but why would this plant, compared with others, specifically need a mention of the soil, the earth? The more modern idea can be explained by progressive transformations of letters, but does not tell us how kharshūf was derived – a word of more than 3 consonants is not standard.}

артосъ, m.,∀: blessed bread distributed* on the Eve of Easter. || — * at Easter || artos, consecrated bread || bread blessed on first Easter day (distributed Saturday of the Easter Week {confusing definition}; Gk. artos, ἄρτος, ου; bread.

000890 артышъ, f.,∀: savin, {or, savine} juniperus sabina: Persian: ardidj, < اردج >, juniper tree.

можжевельникъ (казацкій), P: juniper.

ару, incl., ≠mr: alca, auk; Todwasserhuhn, (Colymbus s. uria troile), Trottellumme, Common Murre, Guillemot, marmette, avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?avibaseid=39F29B55EF9A542F; closest fit: birdforum.net/archive/index.php?t-294240.html; books.google.com/books?id=EVlfAAAAcAAJ& pg=PP731; all names in one article: (German) p. 695 (real); Der dumme Lumme, Urin Toile, No. 231, Lumme, dummes Täucherhuhn, etc. Uria Troile, Colybjus Troile, Guillemot, Foolish Guillemot, Jagd-Zoologie, Volumen 1 1820, Johann Matthäus Bechstein, Erfurt/Gotha, Hennings’chen Buchhandlung 1820; books.google.com/books?id=tgxUAAAAcAAJ. Pages accessed 20170417.

 

Auk

Alca, Alka, Razor-Bill, in 1771 Encyclopedia Britannica (no entry for Auk. An entry for the Great Auk or Pinguin [sic] found in the 1817 version, 5th ed. Vol. XIV. ,books.google.com./books?id=uv1MAQAAMAAJ . In the 9th ed., Vol. III,, of 1875, the Great Auk or Gare-Fowl has its own entry, famous for not having been seen since (as written) 1821, and believed to be extinct. books.google.com/books?id=lTVnAAAAcAAJ

арфа, f.,∀: harp; Gr. Harfe, Lat. harpa.

арфенетъ, m., R: consonnante, a type of harp; Gr. Harfenett > //grovemusic.github.io/Entries/S01325.htm#S01325, acc: 20170417.

арфистка, f., ≠br: harpist (female).

арфистъ, m,∀: harpist, harper (male).

арха, f., P: 000890, indented entry, q.v.

архаизмъ, m., ≠mp: archaism; Gk.: arkaios, ancient.

архалугъ, m., P: short Asiatic house-frock; short summer skirt; нпм: short overcoat or cloak [manteau, surtout] of the people of the Caucusus.

архалыкъ, m., нпм: архалугъ.

000900 архангелъ, m. ≠R: archangel.

архангельскій, ая ое, adj., ≠R: archangelic, archangelical.

археографическій, adj., ≠br: archeographic; —ская экспединія: archeographic section > For this and the next two entries, what is under discussion is the Imperial Archeographic Commision at the Ministry of Education, formed for the discovery and publication of historical documents, working from1837 onwards, Historians and Historical Societies in the Public Life of Imperial Russia, Vera Kaplan, [Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 27 Feb. 2017], books.google.com/books?id=wYw3DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA92, accessed 20170417.

археографія: f., ≠br: archeography

археографъ: m., ≠br: archeograph > a writer who describes historical documents: archive.org/stream/dictionnairecla04unkngoog#page/n110/mode/2up/search/archeo; archéographe Auteur qui décrit les monuments antiques. p. 64 (real) Dictionnaire classique de la langue française avec des examples tirés des .. Antoine de Rivarol, Paris: Brunot-Labbe, Libraire de L’université royale, 1827, accessed 20170418.

археологическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: B: archaiological < [sic], archaeology.

археологія, f.,∀: archaeology; (B: archaiology).

археологъ, m.,∀: archaeologist; (B: archaiologist.

архи, ≠P: word not used alone, and when joined to another, indicates superiority, pre-eminence, primacy || prefix often used as a superlative or ironically, e.g. архи–плутъ, the greatest rascal || arch, chief, head || — ; i.e. arch-rogue.

архі, нпм, ditto.

000910 архива, f., ≠mp: архивъ.

архиварій, m.,∀: keeper of the archives, archivist.

архиваріусъ, ditto.

архивный, –ая ое, adj.: ≠P: archival.

архивъ, m.,∀: archives, records, state-paper office [sic] .

церковный архивъ, B: chartulery [sic], < chartulary, cartulary.

архидіаковскій, –ая ое, adj., B: archidiaconal.

архидіаконство, n., ≠R: archdeaconry, archdeaconship.

архидіаконъ, m., ≠R: archdeacon; Gk. arkhos: chief, ruler + diakonos: servant.

архидюкъ, m., B: archduke..

архимандритство, n., ≠br: archimandriteship?, Fr. archimandritat.

000920 архимандритскій –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: archimandrite’s.

архимандритъ, m.,∀: archimandrite, abbot, prior. {of Orthodox Church}; Gk. arkhos + mandra: flock < {AHD: monastery < cattle pen; PSI: sheep-pen}.

архимандричій, –чья, чье, adj., ≠mp: 000920.

архимандрія, f.,∀: archimandriteship , abbotship , priorship. нпм: monastery of archimandrite {probably an error, inconsistent with other authors and the “-ія” suffix.}

архимедов— винтъ, m., нпм: Archimedean screw; Gk. Archimedes + I.-O. wendh– as in Old Norse, vinda, > to wind < DRL; R’s root: wind–, Pol. gwint, < Gr. Gewinde.

архипастырскій, –ая ое, adj., ≠mr: head раstor’s, hierarchal [sic], hierarchic, hierarchical, Gk. arkhi + Lat., pastor: shepherd.

архипастырство, n., ≠br: prelature.

архипелагъ, m.,∀: archipelago.

архипелажскій, adj., ≠pr: archipelagic.

архисинагогъ, m. P: literal transl: chairman of a synagogue; “Major rabbi,” Russian-Czech, arhisυnagog (Ostrom.), del griego. ἀρχισυνάγωγος. dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/vasmer/36361/архисинагог. Accessed 20170418.

000930 архистратигъ, m.,∀: archistratègue*, chief of the heaenly host: title given to archangels Michael and Gabriel || *, prince of the angels || archistrategus, chief. || general-in-chief (Oberfeldherr);

P: арх. силъ небесныxъ, chief of the heavenly hosts, from Gk. arkhi + strategos, general of the army.

Note: archistrategus in thefreedictionary.com redirects to generalissimo. The title is applied (in Latin to Oliver Cromwell, see iberoamericadigital.net, and search for “CROMWELL Invictissimus Archistrategus”, on the Web site of the Biblioteca Nacional de España, Biblioteca Digital del Patrimonio Iboamericano. Another person who obtained this title was Mehmet Bassa, portraits of whom are on line at europeana.eu/portal/es/record/09428/urn_nbn_de_hbz_061_1_105418.html, with the title Mehmet Bassa, Turcarum Tyranni Archistrategus / Paulus Fürst excudit, Europeana collections, accessed 20170418, another was found at the British Museum site, britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3744291&partId=1&people=108686&peoA=108686-2-60&page=1, Mehmet Bassa Turcarum Tyranni Arcgistrategus, described as Fazil Ahmed Koproli, accessed 20170427.}

архитектонскій, -ая ое, adj., ≠mr: architectonic: Gk. archi- + tekton τέκτων or τέκτoν.

архитектонъ, m. ≠нпм: architect, cf. next noun, below.

архитекторскій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: architects’, architects’, architectural.

архитекторъ, m.,∀: architect + R: constructeur en chef; linguee.fr/francais-anglais/traduction/constructeur+chef.html > chief designer.

архитектура, f.,∀: architecture. нпм gives synonym зодчество; Gk. arkhi + tektōn: carpenter.

военная арх—.: military architecture.

B: гражданская арх—. civil architecture.

B: корабелная арх—.: naval architecture; P: shipbuilding.

P. теорія арх—туры: architectonics.

архитектурный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: architectural.

архитравъ, m.,∀: architrave; Gk. arkhi + Lat. trab, trabis {trabs, in RED}, beam.

архитриклинъ, m., P: chief steward, chief waiter {for dining, biblical}; якоже вкиуси архитриклинъ вина: “and when the chief steward had tasted the [water made into] wine” – John, II, 9.

архіатеръ, m., ≠pr: archiater, head doctor: See a more complete definition at merriam-webster.com/medical/archiater.

000940 архіепископія, f., нпм: archbishopric, archdiocese.

архіепископскій, –ая ое, adj., ≠R: archiepiscopal.

архіепископство, n., ≠R: archiepiscopacy, archbishopric.

архіепископъ, m., ≠R: archbishop; Lat. < Gk. arkhi + bishop: episcopos < guardian < epi + scopos: on, over + watcher.

{Our answer to “Who will watch over the guardians?” – the arch-guardian! The majority of those who use this expression, always against police and similar organizations, probably ignore that the original quote comes from a satire. Here are some variations, and where they might be read in quaint forms of English: “who shall keep the keepers”, p. 63, The Satires of Decimus Junius Juvenalis, trans. William Gifford, London: Nichols & Son , 1836; books.google.com/books?id=LdgNAAAAQAAJ&dq=Juvenal+satire+VI&source=gbs_navlinks_s; “…who shall guard her very Keepers?”, The Satires of Juvenal, D. Browne?, 1739, no further data, p. 161, Lat. p. 160, lines 346-7: “Sed quis custodiet ipsos Custodes?”, which we might translate into mod. En. as “Who’s going to have ultimate control over the security personnel?}

архіерей, m., ≠R: — || bishop*, prelate || * || archbishop.

архіерейскій, –ая ое, adj., ≠R: — || bishop’s, of a bishop || episcopal || archiepiscopal.

арх. посохъ: archbishop’s staff.

архіерейство, n., ≠R: — || prelacy, prelature || episcopacy, bishopric. || archiepiscopal

архіерействовать, ≠R: — || to exercise the functions of a prelate* || * || to have the office {functions} of an archbishop.

архонтскій, adj., нпм: of an archon.

архонтство, n., B: archonship.

000950 архонтъ, m., ≠pr: archon; Gk.: arkhon, ruler, from arkhein, to rule.

арца, f., ≠R: — || 000890* || * || 000890, indented entry, q.v.

арчажный, –ая ое, adj., ≠bp: of a saddle tree or saddle bow

арчак, m.,∀: saddle tree*, saddle bow**, || *, ** || *, ** || *; Tatar.

аршинецъ, –нца, dim., R: аршинъ.

аршинникъ, m.,∀, pop.*: miserable shopkeeper, {dealer in goods}, boutiquier || *: retail merchant || *: a petty shopkeeper, alnager. || seller of yard(ed)-goods; *, продавецъ** (матеріа локтями): ** : p. 208: seller of material by the yard.

The definition of the word “alnager” used by Banks is dubious, see thefreedictionary.com/alnager.

аршинный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: length or width of an аршинъ* || of an archine, length of an archine* || arsheen || * : арш—ая мѣ: {“arsheen-stick” measuring instument for an arsheen}; арш—ая ткань: arsheen-wide fabric.

000957 аршинъ: m.,∀: arsheen {archine, arshine}, Russian ell, metewand, 16 vershocks, 28 inches {transl. from B}, confirmed as 0.71 m. by conversion and СИО; Tk.: arsheen, ell: < آرشين >, нпм: “Metewand”, at thefreedictionary.com/metewand, quoting the 1913 Unabridged Webster’s Dictionary: a measuring rod.

нпм: онъ точно аршинъ проглотилъ: Il est raide comme une asperge montée; expression of this nature (in Fr.) found in Zola’s Little Nana, and translated in various ways, e.g. “tall as an asparagus shoot run to seed”. L’Assommoir, Émile Zola,  http://www.gutenberg.org/files/8600/8600-h/8600-h.htm. Acc.: 20170419.

мѣpять кого / други на свой аршинъ: to measure (judge) by one’s own standard .

P: продавать товаръ по аршинам: to sell goods retail (by the arsheen) .

P: мѣpить своимъ аршиномъ: saying: calculate everything according to its advantages, to only consider oneself: Alles nach seinen Vorteilen berechnen, nur auf sich Bedacht sein. To look well after number one, to be keenly alive to own interests (p. 263, ms3). Fr., above, mesurer a quelqu’un à son aune, à sa toise.

‡: Poor legibility obliged cross-checking with NPm, which included the choice of други (446, search 982, under “toise”). DRV gives меpять as a colloquial form; LDR sends the reader to меpить, OxR omits the entry.

аршинчикъ, dim., R: аршинъ..

арясина, f., ≠pr, pop.: cudgel, big stick {as per Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy}.

000960 асаронъ, m.,∀: cabaret*, nard sauvage**

|| Very confusing: копищникъ defined as alhagi, or sainfoin de Perse P. 272 [308], (NPM: 273 [298]), but on the same page gives копетень as копытень, le *, while копытникъ, which was given as the definition of асаронъ, is подѣсникъ. p.118 [132] of NPm: cabaret. A search for alhagi in R gave копищникъ, hédysarum, hedy sarum alhagi, and none of the other terms.

|| (asarum) asarabacca, 000860, q.v.

|| копетень{see above}; Gk. asaron.

Etym.: Pers. koub, < كوب >, pointed instrument of an animal keeper, Gk., kopis, cutlass.

асбестовикъ, m., P: асбестъ.

асбестовый, –ая ое, adj., P: of asbestos, etc.

асбестъ, m., ≠br: asbestos.

асечка, f., dim., нпм: аська, q.v.

асида, f., Sl., ≠br: heron, mentioned in Leviticus 11:19, P. цапля.

асимптота, f., ≠P: asymptote.

асимптотический, –ая ое, adj., ≠P: asymptotical, {asymptotic}.

аскалоніа, f., ≠R: (ascalonia carpa) shalot, shallot; лукъ < нпм > ognon [oignon], P: Sl., Steppenlauch.

аскарида: f., ⊂G.: аскариды, f. pl.: B: ascarides; D: глиста (мелкая и болшая): Spulwurm — (ascaris) Ascaride; asc. Lumbricoides; mawworm {intestinal parasite}; Gk. askarsis.

000970 аски, m. pl., B: ascii; {accent not marked}. The term is Gk., and simply means inhabitant. It is used in conjunction with other words, to define a zone on the earth according to the way the shadow falls, see GEO, p. 261.

аскиронъ, m., B: (ascyrum) St. Peter’s wort.

аскитникъ, m.,∀: ascetic; B: Sl.; Gk. askätikos < askätäs, hermit, < askein: to work < AHD.

аскитный, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: ascetic.

аскитство, n.,∀: ascetism.

аскитъ, m.,∀: ascetic.

аскіи. –іевъ, m. pl., P: беатѣнные, Schattenlosen, Aseiden. See 000970.

асотъ, m., нпм: осотъ: le laiteron, laceron < p. 41, [473, p. of осовеыность], thistle < {MAF}; HSD translation: sow-thistle, milkweed, the latter not a thistle in America).

аспарагинъ, m., P: спаpжевикъ: Spargelstoff, Asparagin, p. 333, [729]. Chemisches Wörterbuch: T – Z : nebst Register über alle neun Bände, Band 4, Martin Heinrich Klaproth & Friedrich Wolff, [Berlin:Vossischen Buchhandlung, 1819], p. 607, books.google.com/books?id=Vqw5AAAAcAA.

аспараголитъ, m., P: спаpжевый (каменъ), Spargelstein, Spargolith, p.333 [729]. A green-yellow apatite, literal name: asparagus-stone, from its colour.

000980 аспарагъ, m., ≠br: P: спаpжа: asparagus; Gk. asparagos, etym. dubious > OxD.

аспектъ, m., ≠R: aspect (P, нпм: in astronomy). P: асп— въ девяносто градусовъ: aspect quadral, Viertelschein; moon in 1st or last quarter, see: Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm, (Bd. 26, Sp. 332 bis 333) //woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB/?lemid=GV08917, acc.: 20140424.

— осмичастный асп—: aspect octil.

000982 асперъ, m., нпм: asper, a small Turkish coin; {AHD: (Russian not necessarily derived from the latter of this series): Middle En. < It. < Medieval Gk. (shining, newly minted) < Lat. asper (rough). The Turkish word for this coin is dissimilar, aqtché, <, اقچه>, DTF, p. 156 [192]}.

000983 аспидій, m., P: папоротникъ (мужескій): aspidium s. polypodium filix, male fern plant, p. п. 69, [456].

аспиднаго цвѣта, B: slate-coloured.

аспидная доска, f.,∀: a slate (tablet) .

аспидный, –ая ое, adj., ≠M: slate, of slate.

аспидное исчадіе, P: brood of vipers.

аспидовый, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: asp, aspic, of an asp {possibly only limited to “snake” meanings}.

аспидскій, –ая ое, adj., P: аспидовый.

000990 аспидъ, m.,∀: slate; (vipera baje); asp, aspic; jasper* > P > obs.: яшма.

* For the meaning of the reptile, the etym. is Gk. aspis, the name of various vipers, acc. to R. Etym. of the stone is not given, AHD > Lat. > Gk. iaspis from Semitic, related to Assyrian ashpoo, Aramaic yasb, Hebrew yashpäh: See pg. 66 in report beginning p. 64: “Rapport, au nom de la section des belles-lettres, sur un mémoire relatif a l’aspic de cléopatre, communiqué a la sociéte´par M. Georges, juge-de-pais du canton de Chateaurenard, par. M. L. de Sainte-Marie, Séance du 21 aout 1846”, in Mémoires de la sociéte royale des sciences, belles-lettres et arts d’Orléans. Series 2 Tome Septiéme, [Orléans: Imprimerie de Pagnerre, 1846], books.google.com/books?id=Rn8DAAAAMAAJ, accessed 20170423.

аспленій, –ая ое, adj., B: (asplenium) spleen-wort; P: селезёночикъ: Milzkraut, p. 294, [692].

аспра, f., ≠pr: 000982, q.v.

аспяникъ, m., P: 000983.

асса вонючая, P: вонючка: asafetida, p. 129, [219], AHD: Persian: azaa (gum) + (boui, derivatives meaning “smell”).

ассамблея, f. ≠P: gathering* assemblée**, reunion, societé || **, ball {dance} || assembly || —, It.: assemblea {AHD: Lat. assimulare, to bring together, ad + simul (together, at the same time)}.

ассесорскій, adj., assessionary.

ассесорство, m., P: assesssorship (Lt) .

ассесорша, f. ≠P: an assessor’s wife {etym. (this group): Lat. ad + sedere, sit}.

ассесоръ, m.,∀: assessor, assistant judge, puisne judge, associate judge.

коллежсій ассесоръ: ⊂fr: college assessor, assesseur de collège (8-ine classe).

001000 ассигнаціонный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: See following examples.

асс—ый банкъ, ⊂fr: la banque des assignats.

асс— ная бумага, нпм: assignat.

ассигнація, f.,∀: assignation, assignat, bank note, bill.

банковая асс—, P: bank assignment (of credit), bank-note.

патирублёвая асс—, P: 50 ruble bank-note (banknote).

ассигнованіе, n.,∀: assignation, assignment (of payment).

ассигнованный, p.p., нпм: assigned.

ассигновать,∀: to assign; Lat.: ad + signare, to mark.

ассигновка, f., ≠M: ассигнованіе.

ассизы, f., нпм: assizes, court of assizes.

ассизный судъ, нпм: ассизы.

ассистентъ, m., нпм: assistant..

ассо, incl., ≠P: assault, attack; Lat. ad + salire: to jump.

001010 астерикъ: m., P: звѣздочникъ, B: 372, [402] > (aster) starwort; (asteria) girasol. {Note: Girasol is not the sunflower, as it is in Spanish. The appropriate definition: W9 defines girasol as a type of opal, AHD as the fire opal. The former lists asteria – a type of gem cut to reflect light in the form of a star.}

астериксъ, m., нпм: probably a misprint in both нпм and NPM, see next entry, but defined as the preceding, звѣздочникъ, (астерикъ) .

астерискъ, m., ≠pr: asterisk; Gk. asterios < aster, star {See related material in the article Meaning of the Name “Vanessa”, on this website}.

астерометръ, m., ≠pr: astéréomètre, Aster(e)ometer, Sternmesser; see “Brewster’s Astrometer” under “Amusements of Science”, in Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Enlarged and Improved, Volume 18, [Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, 1823]; books.google.com/books?id=wNEnAAAAMAAJ, p. 552, or find accees to search box, and enter “astrometer” Accessed 20170423.

астра, f.,∀: star*, heavenly body, oeil-de-Christ: Michaelmas Daisy (HSD) || aster {vs. astre in R}, China aster || (aster) *; starwort || aster, Sternblume = stellate flower < Lt; Gk. astron, ἄστρον, aster, star.

астрагалъ, m., ≠pr: astragalus {a plant: Fr. dictionaries; a genus of plants in AHD}, milk vetch {HSD; defined in AHD as of the genus astragalus }; Gk. astragalos, vertebra.

P: астр— безетбелный / безстрѣлочный, горохъ (безстебельный): astralagus excapus: Schafelose Astragal (126, [146]).

астраканскій перецъ, P: capsicum annuum, spanischer Pfeffer {(p. P91, [489], red pepper, cayenne (Lt), literal translation, Astrakhan pepper}.

астралный, –ая ое, adj., ≠P: astral.

астрогнозія, f., P: Astrognosie, Sternkenntnis, {i.e. knowledge of (the) stars}. A mention of astrognosis is found on p. 294 of A Cycle of Celestial Objects: For the Use of Naval, Military, and Private Astronomers, Volume 1, William Henry Smyth [London: John W. Parker, 1844]; books.google.com/books?id=yXDvAAAAMAAJ, or find access to search box, and enter “astrognosis” Accessed 20170423.

астрологически, adv., ≠P: astrologically.

001020 астрологическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: astrological.

астрологія, f.,∀: astrology; Gk. astron < aster + logos.

астрологъ, m.,∀: astrologer.

астролябія, f.,∀: astrolabe; Gk. astron + labeïn (take) .

астрономически, ≠P: astronomically.

астрономическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: astronomical.

астрономія, f.,∀: astronomy; Gk. astron + nomos (law).

астрономка, f., R: astronomer {female}.

астрономъ, m.,∀: astronomer.

асфальтическій, –ая ое, adj., ≠mp: asphaltite < R, asphaltic:

Asphaltite is mentioned, at times in quotation marks, in “Thorium- and Titanium-bearing Organic Material in the Dakota Sandstone near Durango, Colorado”, Robert S. Houston and John F. Murphy, Geological Survey Professional Paper, Volumen 700, Parts 3-4, [Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970], p. C138; books.google.com/books?id=071RAQAAMAAJ. Accessed 20170423.

001030 асфальтическое озеро, ≠mp: Lake Asphaltites, the Dead Sea.

асфальтовый, –ая ое, adj.,∀: (of) asphalt, asphaltic.

асфальтъ, m.,∀: asphalt; asphaltum (JBD); Gk. asphaltos {+ AHD: a + sphallein (to cause to fall)}.

001033 асфодилъ, m., ≠mr: (asphodelus): asphodel.

асфодиль, f.,P: ditto; Lat. from Gk. asphodel, a type of lily.

асціи, m. pl.,∀: asciens, ascii {in Reiff, p. 8, search 98, under aмфисціи, because of the same root, not the same meaning, in P, under аскіи}.

асъ, pop.,∀: eh? what?

асъ, mus., нпм: flat.

аська, f., ≠mp: le bonnet de Kamtchadale, cap (in Camchatca).

Kamchatka headgear

Le bonnet de Kamtchadale – Description from p. 63: (ignore pg. number in link) https://books.google.com/books?id=L-tfAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA123, Beginning p. 62: Leurs bonnets sont semblable a(acc) ceux des Jakoutes; mais … (p. 63) les Kamtchadals avoient des bonnets ronds sans pointe, faits de plujmes d0oiseaux ronds sans pointe, faits de plumes d0oiseaux & de peaux de betes (acc circ), semblables aux anciens bonnets des femmes Russes, avec cette seul différence que les oreilles des bonnet Kamtchadals n’étoient pas cousues avec le bonnet, mais qu’elles étoient pendantes. https://books.google.com/books?id=L-tfAAAAcAAJ&dq=le+bonnet+de+Kamtchadale&source=gbs_navlinks_s Histoire et descriptiond de Kamtchatka Contenant I. Les Moeurs et les Coutumes des Habitants du Kamtchatka, II. La Geographie du Kamtchatka, et des Pays circonvoisins (etc.), Tome 1 M. Kracheninnikow, Trad.s.n. Amsterdam Marc Michel Rey, 1770

атайка, f.,∀: sheldrake {HSD} || canard d’Islande (duck of Iceland) || shieldrake, каргалъ (p. 438, search 468: (anas tadorna) shieldrake, skeldrake.)* || *; p. 245, [265] not only yields anas tadorna, but agrees with W9, in that this may also be the merganser: Brandente = sheldrake (Lt); mergus albellus, Nonnentaucher.

001040 атака, f., mil.,∀: attack, onset, charge; It., attacco, {AHD: goes back to an It. word (unattested), meaing attach, from stacca, possibly from Gothic, c < k}.

атакованный, p. p.: (attacked, charged) of next:

атаковать, ≠P: to attack, to charge.

аталанта, f., P: Admiral Butterfly.

атаманскій, -ая ое, adj.,∀: (of) a hetman/(’s), hetmans’.

атаманство, n.,∀: hetmanship.

атаманша, f., B: a hetman’s wife, a chieftain’s wife.

атаманъ, m.,∀: chieftan of irregular Cossacks, chief of a group of bandits || hetman*, ataman**, the chief of the Cossacks*** || *, captain, chieftain || *, **, ***; Polish, hetman, from Gr: Hauptmann, chief.

P: ат. разбойннковъ: robber chieftan || нпм: наказной ат.: hetman through delegation; теpпи казакъ ат. будешъ: (proverb) tout vient à point à qui peut, ou à qui sait attendre ; ou pour parvenir il faut souffrir.

атеизмъ, m.,∀: atheism.

атеистъ, m.,∀: atheist.

001050 атлантъ, m., anatomy, P: atlas; Lat. < Gk. mythology, < I.-O. tel- (AHD) to support.

атласецъ, –сца, m., ≠pr, dim.: satin;

marquise.de/en/themes/howto/stoffkunde.shtml.

атласить, ∀: to satin fabric, to give the lustre of satin* || to make as satin a fabric having its original colour || to make as smooth as satin**|| * or **

атласиться, ∀: to be satined; to rub / wear away (velvet)* || * || to grow as smooth as satin; to fret, to chafe, to ravel, to fray || to become as smooth or shiny as satin.

атласникъ, m., нпм, dim.: atlas.

атласный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: satin, of satin, {satiny}.

атласъ, m.,∀: satin*, atlas**, silk fabric || * ||*, ** || **, a fabric of silk; Ar. aTlas, <اطلس>.

атласъ, m.,∀: atlas, collection of maps; Atlas, a mountain. {B, referring to Atlas Mountains, probably of different etymology, acc./ AHD}; Fr.; etym. @ атлантъ..

атлетическій, adj., нпм: athletic.

атлетъ, m., нпм: athlete.

атмосфера, f.,∀: {the} atmosphere; Gk: atmosphaira < atmos (vapor) + spheros.

001060 атмосферическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: atmospheric, atmospherical.

атмосферный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: ditto.

атомистика, f., P: “atomistics”, study of the atom, i.e. nuclear science.

атомическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: atomical; P: ат—ая теорія: (literal translation for physics, chemistry): corpuscular theory.

атомъ, m.,∀: atom; Gk. indivisible < a (not) + temnein (cut).

аттестатъ, m.,∀: certificate; Lat. attestari, a + testari – to be a witness.

аттестація, f.,∀: attestation, testimоnу; R: same as аттестатъ, all these meanings.

аттестованіе, n., P: attestation, certification.

аттестованный, p.p. ≠P: attested, certified.

аттестовать,∀: to attest, certify.

001070 аттрибутъ, m., нпм: attribute, symbol(ic object of identification).

ату, interj.,∀: tally-ho, halloo, vélaut; in P: ату, ату

атуканье: n., ≠mp: hallooing, {shouting “Tally-ho”}.

001073 атукать, ≠P: to urge on dogs with the cry “tally-ho” || + to halloo || to halloo (to hounds). || — .

атукнуть, ≠P: as above* || * || to give a halloo || — .

ау, interj.,∀: hey!* (rallying cry to avoid getting lost) || * || hollo! holla! || * .

аудиортіатъ, m.,∀: regimental court, auditoriat DE FR .

аудиторіатскій, –ая ое, adj., ≠P: (of a) regimental court.

аудиторія, f.,∀: auditoire*, assembly of auditors || * || auditory, auditorium** || **,

definitions of auditoire: audience, hearers, court-room. (MAK)

аудиторская, f., нпм: meeting room of auditors.

001080 аудиторскій, -ая ое, adj., ≠P: (of an) / (of) auditor(s) .

аудиторская должностъ, bureau of auditors (Auditorenamt) .

аудиторство, n., ≠P: auditorship.

аудиторъ, m.,∀: mil.*, auditor**, regimental judge || *, ** || **, *** || *, **.

B: оберъ —; < JBD > head auditor; Gr: Ober + Lat. form from “to hear”, audio.

аудіенція, f.,∀: audience*, reception** given to an ambassador || *, ** || * || * ; Abschiedsaudienz, Entlassungsaudienz.

аудіенцъ-зала: f.,∀: court-room, presence chamber, audience chamber. Presence chamber, also called chambers of audience: The Visitor’s Hand-book to Richmond, Kew Gardens, and Hampton Court, Etc., n.a., [London: Cradock and Company, 1848], p. 62: books.google.com/books?id=wptYAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA62, acc.: 20140424.

ауй, m., P: харадріонъ: p. 424, [820], a kind of aquatic bird.

ауканіе, n., нпм: action of shouting “hollo” .

ауканье, n., ≠mr: holloing;; P: shouting “oh!”.

001088 аукать, — || call s.o.*, shout to s.o. || to hollo**, to holla** || *, to shout **

аукаться: to hollo one to another, to shout to one another.

аукнуть, аукать: ≠R: to give a hollo. аукнуться: аукаться

каково аукнется таково и откликнется: (saying) ≠pr: comme on fait son lit, on se couche; ou telle demande, telle réponse; wie man in dem Wald schreit, so schallt es wieder heraus; wie du rufes in den Wald, die Stimme dir entgegen schallt; wie man fragt, so wird man berichtet.

001090 аукціонаторъ, m., P: auctioneer.

аукціонеръ, m.,∀: bidder* || * || auctioneer || the one who outbids (Überbieter)*.

аукціонистъ, m.,∀: official valuer* || >*< || auctioneer** || **.

аукціонный, –ая ое, adj.,∀: of an auction, auction.

аукціонъ, m.,∀: auction; Lat. auctio < augere, increase,

продавать съ аукціона: to sell by auction.

ауланъ, m., ≠R: shrike, жуланъ, B: red-backed shrike, lesser butcher-bird*, flasher (p. 308, [338]; P: lanius collurio: rotköpfiger Reuntoder, Würger = * (Lt), p. 173, [193].

аулъ, m.,∀: camp of nomadic people, village of inhabitants of the Caucasus* || * || nomade camp [sic], village, tent. || village (of inhabitants of the Caucasus) (Tk. djagh. aoul, < آول > . {If Dolgopolsky’s theory has validity, this might be related to the Latin word “aula”, as “people inhabiting a certain space”}

ауляхъ, m., ≠bm: Duck of Terre-Neuve, usually translated as Newfoundland, but Novaya Zemlya, literally “New Land” is meant. P: савка: anas hiemalis; cf. аангичъ, comment, and P (part II). p. 278, [676]. {Kamchatka (of the Kamchatka Duck) and Novaya Zemlay are 100º latitude apart! (which does not mean that they cannot be one and the same)}.

ауропигментъ, m., ≠mr: orpiment **, cf. 000065..

аускултантъ, m., P: auscultator, hearer, listener; OxF, 55, ’19, Lat. auscultare, etym. dubious.

001100 ауто-да-фе, B: auto-da-fe.

афектація, m., нпм: affectation.

афеліай, m.,∀: aphelion, apheliam; aphelion < apo (far) + helios (sun) .

афеня, m., нпм: hawker, pedlar, peddler.

афера, f., нпм: speculation.

афериста, f., нпм: see next:

аферистъ, m., ≠mr: P: adventurer {in sense of “one who lives by his wits” (OxF), and “swindler”.}; B: intriguer.

афиша, f.,∀: post-bill, play bill {placard, announcement, poster}, advertisement, slip.

афишка, f.,∀: diminutive of supra; Fr. afficher < Lat. figo, figere, fixi, fixum.

афишникъ, B: bill-poster.

001110 афоризмъ, m.,∀: aphorism; Gk. aphorismos < apo + orizein (to limit).

афористическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: aphoristic.

афродита, f., P: гусеница (морская) p. 135, [155],318 [338]: caterpillar.

аффодилъ, m., P: 001033.

аханъ, m.,∀: a fishing net*, especially for sturgeon ** || * || a sturgeon net*** || ***; Tk. agh: < آغ >.

аханье, n.,∀: crying Ah!, sighing.

ахать, ∀: to cry “Ah!”, to sigh.

ахинея, f. pop.,∀: a cock and a bull story, nonsense, absurdities.

R: онъ мелеть ахинею: only speaks fadaises (twaddle); similar to P: нести ахинею, talk foolishly.

ахнуть, ∀: ахать.

аховой, adj., fam., нпм: admirable, great, excellent. According to the termination, accent would be expected on the last syllable. СИО has an entry written аховый, with 2 basic meanings, (1), bad, ugly, and (2) mischievous, daring. For the latter, an example is given which parallels азартный человѣк, 000170 + 2. нпм‘s definition may be understood as the reaction of the daredevil’s companions to a “masterful” stroke (defntn 2, here), while parents and other serious individuals would label the action as “bad”. Cf. the slang meaning of “bad” in English.

001120 ахроматизмъ, m., ≠br: achromatism.

ахроматическій, –ая ое, adj., ≠R: achromatic.

ахтеръ-люкъ, m., нпм: after hatchway.

ахтеръ-штевенъ, m., ≠pr: stern-post.

ахти, interj.,∀: heigh-ho! alas! ah!

ахъ.,∀: ah! Oh!

аще, conj, Sl., ≠R: — || if* || *, provided, in case || * .

ащебы, ≠pr: — || if only || аще, supra || — .

ащеже, B: but if; ащели, B: = аще; аще ли, P: but if (compare preceding items!)

аэродинамика, f., ≠br: aerodynamics; Gk.

аэролитъ, f., ≠br: aereolith, aereolite.

аэрологическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: aerological.

001130 аэрологія, f.,∀: aerology; Gk. aerologia < (air) + logos (word) .

аэромантія, f., P: aeromancy. A reference is found in: Encyclopaedia Perthensis; Or Universal Dictionary of the Arts, Sciences, Literature, &c. Intended to Supersede the Use of Other Books of Reference, Volume 7, 2nd ed., n.a., [Edinburgh: John Brown, 1816], p. 391, books.google.com/books?id=K0lQAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA391, acc. 20140424.

аэрометрическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: aerometrical.

аэрометрія, f., ∀: aerometry, Gk. aerometria < (air) + metron, measure.

аэрометръ, m., ≠pr: aerometer.

аэронавтика, f., ≠pr: aeronautics.

аэронавтъ, m., ≠pr: aeronaut; Gk., (air) + [argo] naut < ship, cf. Lat.: nauta, sailor.

аэростатика, f., ≠pr: aerostatics.

аэреостатическій, –ая ое, adj.,∀: aerostatic.

аэреостатъ, m.,∀: aerostat, balloon, air balloon; Gk. (air) + Lat. stare: se tenir (= stay, remain, etc.), {stand, the common I.-O. root stā- is manifested 5 times in this entry.}

001140 аѳеней, m., B: a hawker of books.

 

Uploaded April 24, 2017,

©  Paul Karl Moeller

.

Bibliography of Major Sources

(All other sources are cited under the entries which they attest.)

A Complete English-Russian Dictionary, A. Alexandrov, [St. Petersburg, London: David Nutt, 1905]; https://archive.org/details/completeenglishr00alekuoft

A Complete Hebrew and English Critical and Pronouncing Dictionary,  2nd Ed., William L. Roy, [New York: John F. Trow & Co., 1846]. https://archive.org/details/acompletehebrew00roygoog

A Compleat System of General Geography: Explaining the Nature and Properties of the Earth …Bernhardus Varenius, Stephen Austen, et. al.,  trans. Mr. Dugdale, revised by Peter Shaw, London: Stepehn Austen, 1734; books.google.com/books?id=oAkTAAAAYAAJ&hl=es&source=gbs_navlinks_s, acc.: 20170422

A Dictionary of Persian and English, 2nd Ed., Ramdhun Sen. [Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1841.]; https://books.google.com/books?id=3T1bAAAAQAAJ.

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A Latin-English and English Latin Dictionary for the Use of Schools, Charles Anthon, [New York: Harper & Row]; https://books.google.com/books?id=JFoSAAAAIAAJ

An American Dictionary of the English Language, Noah Webster, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1857; https://books.google.com/books?id=V_8YAAAAYAAJ

An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English, and other Indo-European Languages, Ali Nourai [n.d.], a .pdf document, EtymologicalDictionary-persian-english.pdf, at archive.org.

A New Latin Dictionary, E.A. Andrews, ed., Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1891]; https://archive.org/details/LewisShortLatnDiccionary

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Concise Oxford Dictionary, 3rd Edition, H. W. Fowler, H. G. Le Mesurier….., [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934]

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Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary: A Revised Edition of Julius Pokorny’s Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Dnghu Association – Indo-European Language Association, , [http://dnghu.org/  : Dnghu Association, 2007]

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Roots of the Russian Language, George Z. Patrick.. Passport Books [Lincolnwood (Chicago) NTC Publishing): 1989]

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Словарь руского языка, С. И. Ожегов, [Москва, Государственное издатльство иностранных и национальных словарей, 1960]

Толковый Словарь Живаго Великорускаго Языка, В. И. Даль, Vol. I, А – З, [Moscow: А. Семён, 1863]

Толковый Словарь, 40000 Иностранныхъ Словъ, А. Дмитриевым, {or A. Mikhelson, some Russian pages show “author unknown”, based on works of В. И. Даль, Макаров, Сувирон}???, [Moscow: В. Готьк, 1875].

 

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