The Specialness of Days

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Authors

Abstract

The purpose of this essay is to consider, from the point of view of various traditions, how days were considered special, and some of the changes that have taken place from traditional times. The article concludes by suggesting that these days are not of good pedagogical value.

This web page was originally on knol.google.com, under the title, “Special Days, Observations, Celebrations, and Commemorations”, where it received over 9,900 unique page-views. During the automatic transfer, much was lost, including what was probably an elementary-school based readership, which now probably has its access blocked.  Furthermore, the original listings not only complete with many works of a similar nature, but placed this effort largely on the lowest scale of Bloom’s taxonomy.  An effort has been made to recreate the best parts of the original page, while modifying the content to being more focused. Paul Karl Moeller – May 12, 2012, revised December, 2013.

Table of Contents

Conservative Holy Days
Revolutionary French Months – a Digression into Disorder
Early Twentieth-Century: The Russian Revolution Calendar Retouch
The Conservatism of the Calendar – Antidote to Revolution
(Including Table of Days in 10 Languages)
WHO’s Sick?
Curious Calendar – Days of Diversion or Diversion of Days
Partially Frivolous Lists:

November’s Special Days

December’s Special Days

Conclusion: Is the World Better Off than it Used to Be?

white space for paragraphwhite space for paragraphWorld Diabetes Day (Modern Style)

200 pixel width whitespace 200 pixel width whitespace Feast of St. Lawrence O’Toole (Old Style)
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Conservative Holy Days

whitespaceThe Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, in his work The Waning of the Middle Ages, pointed out that near the end of the period under discussion in his book, the Christian Church had instituted so many feast days – all celebrated by the peasantry – that hardly any work was being done. Rather, life was being lived heartily in eating and drinking. Long before the Industrial Revolution and the posterior elimination of servitude came, therefore, it is seen that this state of affairs was not one which could last – these Holy Days (as distinct from holidays) came to be limited. Christians now are left with Holy Week, which in some countries results in no work from Holy Thursday, up to Easter Monday.
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Revolutionary French Months – a Digression into Disorder

whitespaceWhen the French Revolution came about, not only was the nobility overthrown, but clergy and nuns were killed, churches converted into Temples of Reason, and that vestige from the centre of the Christian World, the Gregorian Calendar – in turn a revision of the Julian Calendar – replaced with a revolutionary version so new, that, in spite of its very scientific underpinnings, confusion was part of the design. For example, the month Vendémiaire corresponded to September 22 – October 21 in the year 1794.[1] Clearly, the system was impractical, if the country was to communicate intelligently with the rest of the “civilized” world. Depending on the book one reads, the French Revolution was the work of the peasantry or the bourgeoisie. [2] As things reverted to something more traditional with the arrival of Napoleon, the peasantry clearly lost. One finds the following individuals as examples in the New World, as followers of the French world-view of the time: José de San Martín, Simón Bolívar, José Artigas, and José Martí. Their ideas came to them through freemasonry – whether through books or lodges – ideas, that some Latin American republics proudly proclaim as their tradition.[3] Be that as it may, it must have been difficult to be brotherly-minded (according to revolutionary, and still-valid French slogan, “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité“, without a compatible way of considering the days, weeks, and months, and so Napoleon brought back the old calendar. But now, Holy Days were definitely at a premium, and whatever feudal protections still may have existed, were thrown out of the window. Workers had to carry around a little booklet in order to prevent trouble with the police. This is another tradition that still survives in some Latin American countries, and can be seen as a method of tight control over the worker, while he is fed the story that he is living as a free man.[4]
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Early Twentieth-Century: The Russian Revolution Calendar Retouch

whitespaceWith all these religious festivals eliminated, at least there remained Christmas celebrations, when at the time of the last Gentleman’s War, the French and German soldiers could still enjoy a game of European football [soccer], before continuing the more bloody shooting match on the following day. [5] In 1918, Russia decided to update to the Gregorian Calendar, as they were several days behind the rest of the world. Ironically, that too was a revolutionary decision. Two and a half weeks later, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, leaving the former to pursue revolution, and the latter to fight exclusively on the Western Front. The war to end all wars was followed by a first attempt to create a multinational body – the League of Nations – to help mitigate such international crises, heavily sponsored by United States President Woodrow Wilson. [6] He was not exactly democratic in pushing for the plan. [7] It fizzled out, and another war followed. Some say, it was all part of the conspiracy – Hitler helped Roosevelt. [8] Germany did, however, bequeath the rest of the world the Christmas tree, Volkswagen, and Mercedes-Benz!
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The Conservatism of the Calendar – Antidote to Revolution

Note: Some of the referenced links needed to be edited before using, as line breaks needed to be used to get this chart to be fully visible. If the entire chart is not seen, a different screen resolution may be required.

The Days of the Week and Their Meaning in Selected Languages
Arabic Chinese English French Traditional French Revolutionary
الأحَد – Al-Ahad – Day One 星期日, or 星期天 – star period day (星[xīng] – star) Sunday – Day of the Sun dimanche – Day of the Lord, from Latin – Dominicus Primidi – First Day
الإثْنَيْن – Al-’ithnayn – Day Two 星期一 – star period one (期[qī] – time limit) Monday – Day of the Moon [goddess] lundi – As in English “www.louisg.net/
Etymologie.htm”]
Duodi – Second Day [Source: “www.webexhibits.org/
calendars/
calendar-french.html”]
الثُّلاثَاء – Ath-Thalatha’ – Day Three 星期二- star period two [third element is number] Tuesday – Day of Tiu -God of the Sky – [word related to Lat. Deus , Sp. Dios , and Anglo-Greek theo : all meaning “God”] mardi – Day of Mars – God of War Tridi – Third Day
الأرْبِعَاء – Al-’Arba’a’ – Day Four 星期三 – star period three [Note: 1, 2, 3 are like Roman numerals] Wednesday – Day of Wotan mercredi – Day of Mercury Quartidi- Fourth Day
الْخَمِيس – Al-Khamees – Day Five 星期四 – star period four [Translations from http://www.nciku.com/%5D Thursday – Day of Thor, God of Thunder jeudi – Day of Jove [Jupiter] Quintidi – Fifth Day
الْجُمْعَة – Al-Jum’ah – Day of Gathering 星期五 – star period five – [More at: http://www.cjvlang.com/
Dow/dowchin.html
Friday – Day Of Frigga – Wotan´s Wife – German translation of Latin for Venus´s Day vendredi – Day of Venus [Note that French Days all end in “-di” Sextidi – Sixth Day
السَّبْت – As-Sabt – To rest – akin to Hebrew for “Sabbath” 星期六 – star period six Saturday – Day of Saturn samedi [Apparent mixture of Day of Saturn and nasalization of Hebrew for “Sabbath” Septidi, Octidi, Nonidi, Decadi [remaining days, up to the 10th – the only non-working day.
German Hebrew Portuguese Russian Spanish
Sonntag – Meaning as in English רִאשׁוֹן – reeshon – head, beginning [of the week] domingo – Day of the Lord, cf. the French word. воскресенье – voskresenje – Day of the Resurrection [of Christ] domingo – Day of the Lord, same as in Portuguese
Montag – Same as in English [See: (join line content!)
http:
//unbequeme-
gedanken.de/
Sonstiges/
etym.htm]
שֵׁנִי – [yom] shenee – the second [day] – in text of Gen. 1:8 segunda-feira – Second Day of the Week – Compare Arabic, Chinese, French Revolutionary Days. понедельник [poñedelñik] – Compound of по and недельник, from неделя: “week”, Author´s understanding – “Day in the week”. lunes – Day of the Moon [goddess] – same as in English
Dienstag [Apparently from Tiu, as in English “Tuesday”, “n” added in Christian times שְׁלִישִׁי – shleeshee – the third day [Notice similarity to Arabic and French Revolutionary Calendar day-naming conventions terça-feira – Third Day of the Week вторник – vtorñik – from второй – meaning “second” martes – Day of Mars – same as in French
Mittwoch – Middle of the Week – Christian era substitution for “woensdag” [Wednesday] רְבִיעִי – re’vee׳ee, cf. Arabic ‘Arba’a’, as Hebrew “B” and “V” are similar. – the fourth quarta-feira – Fourth … среда – sreda – from the Russian word for “middle”, thus “middle day of the week”, cf. German “Mittwoch”. miércoles – Day of Mercury – the Wing-footed God
Donnerstag – Day of Donner – God of Thunder – Thor חֲמִישִׁי – xameeshee, “X” like an “H”, “SH” like “S”, cf Arabic “Khamees” [“Kh” like “H”] – the 5th quinta-feira – Fifth … четверг – chetverk – Fourth [day of the week. Note that the enumeration of days does not correspond to the Portuguese or other languages here, Monday is the first day for the Russians. jueves – Day of Jove or Jupiter – the Jovial God
Freitag – Same as in English שישי – sheeshee – akin to Arabic six – sitta, cf. silibant “S” change to “T” from German words such as “Fuss”:”Foot”, “Nuss”:”Nut”, and relationship between Centum and Kentum languages, allowing a silibant, “S[H]” to become hard, hence, Hebrew S[h]iS[h]i > siks, six. (This may be a false etymology, but the principles shown here are valid.) sexta-feira – Sixth … пятница – pyatñitsa – Fifth [Day of the week]. viernes – Day of Venus
Samstag – from Hebrew “Sabbath” שַׁבָּת – shabat, aka Sabbath, cd Arabic “As-Sabt derived from the number ستة. [Hebrew transliterations in this column taken from http:/
/www.hebrewonline.com/
Hebrew_category/9-.htm]
sábado – From Hebrew שַׁבָּת, see column at left. суббота – subbota – Hebrew for “Sabbath” – as all words in this row! sábado – from Hebrew “Sabbath”
Table concept and preparation: 19 November 2008 © Paul Karl Moeller

whitespaceA study of the above chart reveals two facts – first, that there is a series of languages in the world that uses a very simple system of days, based on nothing more than the numbers from one to seven, except in the case of the French Revolutionary Calendar. The other fact is that, with the exception of the days in Chinese, and the just mentioned revolutionary listing, the languages have at least one important weekday with either a real, or residual, religious significance. The pre-Christian English, French, and Germans share certain gods, while the French, Spanish, and Portuguese, and even Russians, give paramount position to the Lord [Jesus Christ]. The English Calendar is the most pagan of the set. This author has been of the opinion that the Russian Revolution could not be successful in implanting its collectivist designs upon a people, who in their hearts knew that their Sunday was called “The Day of the Resurrection”. The revolution had not complied with Voltaire’s dictum, “Écrasez l’Infâme“. The French Calendar of the Revolution may have had a reverse for more practical reasons – only one non-working day existed for each of the three ten-day weeks of that short-lived period. The concept of “Sabbath” exists in all but the country with Confucian roots, except the Moslems, which have their equivalent in their Friday, “The Day of the Gathering [in the Mosques]. To reword, each calendar has at least one special day – even the Chinese nomenclature for Sunday is slightly different. If it is not a day for Church, the Mosque, or the Synagogue, it is a day to celebrate some Germanic or Roman god or goddess, which has the virtues most admired by its worshippers. The above concept can be extended to the nomenclature for the months: Janus, Mars, Aphrodite [Venus] gave their names to January, March, and April; Maia [a supposed Etruscan form of the name of Vulcan’s wife] and Junus [goddess of the home] lend their names to May and June; while September, October, and November, originally meant the seventh, eight, and ninth month, respectively. A couple of heroes got their names in – Julius and Augustus Caesar, replacing the original Quintilis and Sextilis Latin names for the fifth and sixth division of the year. Thus it is seen that groups of days too were dedicated to someone special. It may be added, before leaving the realm of man’s relationship to the gods and the equinoxes (which, however, were intentionally used for some of the special dates listed further below), that man celebrates, in addition to his spiritual or secular religious dates of importance; the birthdays of friends, family, famous countrymen; and various anniversaries, of which dates of death are common holidays in some countries. The following are the some best known outside of Asia: Good Friday, St. Valentines Day, Ashorra [Ashura] – the day of the death of Imam Hussein, Asarah B’Tevet, Dunce Day [Day of the death of Duns Scotus], Anniversary of the Death of General José de San Martín – Argentina, Día de los Muertos [Day of the Dead] – in Mexico, beginning about 6 hours after Halloween.

Grinning Pumpkins

See the original image at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lobo235/58965867 Licence Some rights reserved by lobo235
An alternate system of naming the days might be suggested by a reading of Genesis, or, as it is called in Hebrew,   בְּרֵאשִׁית‎, is here suggested, as more descriptive of the Hebrew names in the above chart: Day of Light, Day of the Firmament, Day of the Conditions Apt for Life [land and water, and flora], Day of the Celestial Bodies, Day of Non-mammalians, Day of Mammalians, Day of Rest. Still half of these suggestions retain  celestial references found in other systems, but without any mentioning false gods; for, or after whom, the planets visible to the ancients were names. Excluding the Day of Rest, which might be renamed, G-d’sday [and the missing letter is that way, in consideration of traditional Jewish transcriptions for the name of the Creator], the remaining days, for all the creation that took place, could easily correspond, with some overlap, to the names of Roman gods and goddesses, including Flora and Faunus.  Perhaps this explains how a religion from the Middle East could be accepted on the Italian peninsula. Clearly, the above chart does show 2 tendencies: that of merely counting the days, and that of pagan traditions, with the occasional exception for a Christian substitute for “Sunday”. [Not quite the page I’m looking for, but here is a mix of gematria, geometry, and not quite the suggestion, as found on a very similar page, as if there were a connection between the English word “sun” and “son”, but nevertheless showing a relationship, through numbers, between the Lord (Son of God) and, unfortunately, the profane, considered as the sun, (Greek, helios), and father (of the son), with a reference to Zeus, thus giving us, Sunday (Domingo), Tuesday (Zeus’s day), with a possible pre-Christian idea of a trinity.]
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WHO’s Sick?

whitespaceBy founding the United Nations, another attempt was made to create a world body to prevent wars – if not minor ones, at least the worst of them, at the time of the tensest possible relations between the two antagonistic superpowers, the United States of America, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. United Nations membership has been growing steadily, and a certain increase in the power of smaller states, and particular bodies of the U.N., can be seen – particularly in the case of the World Health Organization, which gives us World Diabetes Day. They also work hard at anti-tobacco laws, which may be considered an attack on one’s freedom. [9] The following is a partial list of internationally celebrated days declared by the World Health Organization.

  • World Health Day
  • World Tuberculosis Day
  • World No-Tobacco Day
  • World AIDS Day
  • World Breast Cancer Day

whitespaceIf one adds International Women’s Day and International Workers’ Day, by error, to the U.N. list, it is to be wondered if this is just a proliferation of diseases!
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Curious Calendar – Days of Diversion or Diversion of Days

whitespaceThe following calendar give some mind-boggling results for the special days of November and December, based on lists from Australia, the state of Missouri, and a source from Indiana. Some of these days merely occasions for teachers to given lessons on the date in question – and it can be noticed that all such teaching would detract from the more important subjects of Mathematics and the hard sciences. It can be noted that some days are dedicated to more that two remembrances. One may note what may be called a number of “Feel Good About Something” days, and a celebration of diversity, in for example, the December 22 – 26 trio of Chanukah (Hanukkah), Christmas, and Kwanzaa. The inclusion of days dedicated to some Christian saint, however, seem arbitrary, St. Andrew reflects the British origins of Australia, but why St. Lucia and not All Saint’s Day (spelling) in the Australian list may raise some questions. If February were included, it would be seen that there would be more agreement on St. Valentine’s Day, however, it has become more associated with the secular, rather than the sacred.
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November’s Special Days

  • 1 – All Saint’s Day; Book Lovers Day†[10]
  • Tuesday after first Monday, even-numbered years: Election Day – U.S.A.
  • Changing the face of Men’s Health * All Australian states
  • 2 – Look for Circles Day; Deviled Egg Day †
  • 3 – Housewife’s Day; Sandwich Day †
  • 4 – King Tut Day †
  • U.S. Election Day (quadrennial)‡
  • 6 – Saxophone Day †
  • 8 – Dunce Day †
Dunce

Fig. 14: Original Caption: Dunce Cap

Links provided in the following box are the original caption text.

Creative Commons – Check Link in Next Box., KlemSouth (no real name provided).

Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (see below)

  • Agriculture and Rural Collections Open Day * New South Wales, Australia National Parents as Teachers Day ‡
  • 9 – Chaos Never Dies Day †
  • 10 – Forget-Me-Not Day; USMC Day †
  • National Food Safety Week 10 Australia
  • Physical Education Week – South Australia
  • World Human Rights Day ( error on Sigma Kids, see December 10)
  • School Psychology Awareness Week 10-14 ‡
  • Youth Appreciation Week 10-16 ‡
  • 11 – Veteran’s Day (U.S.) Armistice Day (U.K.)
  • Veterans Day, National Community Education Day †
  • 13 – Sadie Hawkins Day; World Kindness Day †
  • 14 – Operating Room Nurse Day; Young Readers Day †
  • World Diabetes Day 14 Nov 2008 Global
  • 15 – Clean Your Refrigerator Day; America Recycles Day †
  • 16 – Button Day; Have a Party with Your Bear Day †
  • National Skin Cancer Action Week Australia
  • International Day for Tolerance *
  • American Education Week 16-22 ‡
  • 17 – Homemade Bread Day † World Peace Day† (not marked in Australian)
  • 18 [no references!]
  • 19 – Have Bad Day Day †
  • World GIS Day
  • World Toilet Day
  • Education Support Professionals Day ‡
  • 20 – Beautiful Day; Great American Smokeout †
  • Africa Industrialisation Day *
  • Universal Children’s Day *
  • National Parental Involvement Day
  • 21 – World Hello Day †‡
  • World Television Day *
  • 22 – Go for a Ride Day †
  • 23 National Family Week 23 – 29 ‡
  • 24 Thanksgiving Day (U.S.) in 2011
Turkey

Fig. 15: Original Caption: American turkey at Beech Court Gardens Strutting around with several others near the tea rooms at Beech Court and probably glad that we don’t celebrate Thanksgiving Day in England.

See information in the next box.

Creative Commons, Pam Fray.

Attribution Share-Alike 2.0 Generic

© Copyright pam fray and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

  • 25 International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women *
  • 26 – Shopping Reminder Day †
  • 27 – Pins and Needles Day;†
  • 28 – Buy Nothing Day; Make Your Own Head Day†
  • 29 – Square Dance Day †
  • 30 – Stay at Home Because You Are Well Day †
  • St Andrew’s Day 30 *, marked Global
  • Computer Security Day *, marked Global
  • Last Day of Spring 30 Australia [note: 21 days early!]

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December’s Special Days

  • 1 – Eat a Red Apple Day; World Aids Awareness Day †
  • latter as World AIDS Day*
  • National Coastcare Week * Australia
  • 2 International Day for the Abolition of Slavery *
  • 3 International Day of Disabled Persons *
  • 4 – Santas’ List Day; Wear Brown Shoes Day †
  • 5 – Bathtub Party Day †
  • International Volunteer Day *
  • 6 – St Nicholas Day; Mitten Tree Day; Put on your own Shoes Day †
  • 7 – Letter Writing Day†; National Cotton Candy Day†; Pearl Harbor Day†, International Civil Aviation Day
  • named Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day‡
  • 8 – National Brownie Day; Take it in the Ear Day †
  • 9 – Christmas Card Day; National Pastry Day †
  • 10 – International Human Rights Day *† [World Human Rights Day on Sigma Kids]; Nobel Prize Day
  • 11 International Mountain Day *
  • 12 – National Ding-a-Ling Day; Poinsettia Day †
  • 13 – Ice Cream Day; Violin Day †
  • St. Lucia Day *, marked Global
  • 14 – International Children’s Day, †orInternational Children’s Day of Broadcasting *
  • 15 – Bill of Rights Day †‡ [U.S.]; National Lemon Cupcake Day †
  • 16 – National Chocolate Covered Anything Day † [highly fictious name!]
  • 17 – National Maple Syrup Day †
  • 18 – Bake Cookies Day †
  • International Migrants Day *
  • 19 – Look for an Evergreen Day, Oatmeal Muffin Day †
  • 20 – Go Caroling Day †
  • International Human Solidarity Day *
  • 21 – Humbug Day; National Flashlight Day; Look on the Bright Side Day †
  • 22 Chanukah (in the year 2008, see below for updates)*
  • 23 [no references]
  • 24 [ibid.]
  • 25 – Christmas Day, National Pumpkin Pie Day †
  • 26 Boxing Day – All states except South Australia *
  • Kwanzaa 26 *, marked Global
  • 27 – Make Cut Out Snowflakes Day †
  • 28 [no references]
  • 29 Hijrah or Muharram (in the year 2008, see below for updates) (Islamic New Year) * [with Civil Aviation and Nobel Prize Days added 6 Dec. 2008]
  • 31 – Make up Your Mind Day; New Year’s Eve; Unlucky Day †

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Conclusion: Is the World Better Off than it Used to Be?

whitespacewhitespaceOne may ask though, are any of these days (excepting perhaps those included in the last list) as pleasant as the feast days of carousing during the waning Dark Ages, or even the remaining holidays of modern times? Catholics are given days with up to 24 saints to celebrate,[11] but could they even name 24 saints, let alone explain their significance? Further, the proliferation of such days implies a certain equality between them – but it is one thing to suggest giving up smoking, but what is it that we are supposed to do about tuberculosis, or cancer? Rolling back malaria either requires toxic methodologies, or habitat destruction, but one is asked to consider both the environment and health.

whitespace Some of these are initiatives of specialist organizations, but for an individual to be exposed every month and almost every week to a celebration of one such thing or another causes the law of diminishing returns to kick in – the concept becomes meaningless, and as previously stated, detracts, at least on the student level, from a more solid education, in which sense the student is being dumbed down.

whitespace Perhaps World Diabetes Day could be incorporated into a chemistry [chemistry of the sugars] or biology class [study of the kidney]? Even so, not as much fun as eating and drinking – which in this case, will be limited to the government officials who decide they have an occasion to pontificate about the day in question.

whitespace“Oh, but do you too have the fetish for art, that ridiculous fetish that obliges one to believe that useless things are more useful than the necessary ones? … If you force me to say so, I would say that [science too] is useless. … [b]ecause it forms barbarians with brains that have developed at the expense of the rest of their organs … Down with all … teaching!”[12]

whitespacewhitespaceDecember 13, 2008, – Last knol update: April 14, 2012.whitespacewhitespaceUploaded to WordPress April 28, 2012.

whitespacewhitespaceFormatted to new standards: May 17, 2012, moved from “Article” to “Post”: June 13, 2012. – P.K.M.

References

  1. Abelard. “the calendar of the French Revolution [sic]“. <http://www.abelard.org/france/revolution_calendar.php&gt;. For an idea on dates, one can experiment here: Peter Windhorst. “French Revolutionary Calendar”. <http://www.windhorst.org/calendar/.&gt;. A different set of months in an older German calendar had no revolutionary implications, for the old Germanic names, see: Dr.theol. Manfred Becker-Huberti. “Monat”. <http://www.festjahr.de/monate/index.html&gt;. For all websites: Accessed 14 November 2008. Hard copy example: Der Sprach Brockhaus: Deutsches Bildwörterbuch. “Jahr” under illustration J2. (Wiesbaden, F. A. Brockhaus: 1981). 319.
  2. See, for example, [Amazon.com]. “Product Description”. The Bourgeois Revolution in France, 1789-1815, by Henry Heller. <http://www.amazon.com/Bourgeois-Revolution-1789-1815-Monographs-Studies/dp/1845451694&gt; . Accessed 14 November 2008.
  3. Everyone living in the Americas should have heard of San Martín and Bolívar before graduating. For Artigas, see: Kintto Lucas. “El pensamiento social de José Artigas”. TINKU (Información alternativa). 20 August 2007. <zhttp://www.tinku.org/content/view/2244/6/>. The author warns that this is a non-conventional source, but it reflects in some way the editorial thinking heard on Radio Colonia, Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay. For Martí: Julio Martínez Molina MOLINA. “Nuevas pistas despejan incógnita sobre José Martí y la masonería”. 5 de Septiembre. 13 August 2008. <http://www.5septiembre.cu/historia158.htm&gt;. Both of these accessed 14 November 2008
  4. In Latin America, Libreto de Trabajo. “GLOSARIOS HISTORIA DE GUATEMALA”. Scribd. [Key in the word “libreto”.] The Spanish definition makes clear that farm workers needed this document with their work history, in order to escape the charge of vagrancy. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/7834892/GLOSARIOS-HISTORIA-DE-GUATEMALA&gt;. In France it was called “le livret de travail”. “LE CONSULAT ET L’EMPIRE”. <http://www.stellamaris-edu.net/2/images/010consulat_empire.htm&gt;. See also, “Napoléon Bonaparte”. <http://users.belgacom.net/renedec/pagehis17.html&gt;. Accessed 15 November 2008, (all three sites).
  5. “The Christmas truce”. BBC News. 3 November 1998. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/197627.stm&gt;. Accessed 14 November 2008.
  6. The reader is invited to do a search on the internet as follows: ‘ “Woodrow Wilson” NWO ‘.
  7. Gene Wilson. When the cheering stopped: The last years of Woodrow Wilson. (Additional details will be provided shortly. – PKM.)
  8. Henry Makow, “Henry H. Klein – Anti- Zionist Martyr “, http://www.henrymakow.com. Accessed 13 November 2008. For this author’s feelings on conspiracy theories, the reader is invited to read his “Conspiracy Theory 1A6″, found on this same web site.
  9. See: WHO Europe, Provisional agenda item 7, Regional Committee for Europe, Fifty-fourth session, Copenhagen, 6–9 September 2004.43, in which success in Georgia is pointed out. <www.euro.who.int/Document/RC54/einfdoc02corr1.pdf>. Accessed 14 November 2008.
  10. List compiled from the following sources: “Events”. EDNA. 9 November 2008. <www.edna.edu.au/edna/go/events/cache/offonce;jsessionid=9160BCAFA38F4A6CBEFBEC709991E27F>, marked with an asterisk. “November Special Days and Events”, 29 July 2008. NovemberSpecail Days and Events.PDF [sic] from East Central Educational Service Center. (Same for December). <www.ecesc.k12.in.us>, marked “†”. Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education. 30 October 2008. “Special Days and Events”. <http://dese.mo.gov/calendar/specialdays.html&gt;, marked “‡”. One site, http://www.sigmakids.lk/days.html gives all the days a month early.All accesses 14 November 2008 and checked 6 December 2008.
  11. Found for November 27 on “Feast day List – November”, 2008, Catholic Online, <http://www.catholic.org/saints/f_day/nov.php&gt;. Accessed 15 November 2008.
  12. Pío Baroja. Paradox, Rey. (Buenos Aires: Espasa-Calpe [Colecciíón Austral]: 1946). 180-1. Selected fragments of a conversation by the character Paradox, translated from the Spanish by the author of this web-page.
  13. Pete Souza. (photographer). “Easter Bunny” in the series “Easter Egg Roll”. Taken from the U.S. Government’s White House Web site. Image 6 of 14. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/photogallery/white-house-easter-egg-roll&gt;. Acc.: 20110418. The caption to the image reads as follows: “President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and their daughters Malia and Sasha, with the Easter Bunny (Deputy Director of Oval Office Operations Brian Mosteller) in the Green Room of the White House before heading outside for the annual Easter Egg Roll on the South Lawn, April 5, 2010. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)”. It is understood that this photo is in the public domain, cf. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/copyright&gt;. View the slide show for the Easter Egg Roll at the White House.

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